The autonomic nervous system carries out many somatic reflexes that are crucial to homeostasis.
The autonomic nervous system is composed of ganglia in the central nervous system and ganglia in the periphery.
All preganglionic fibers pass through the sympathetic chain of ganglia synapsing at least once there.
The autonomic effect on a target cell depends only on the neurotransmitter reaching that target cell.
Binding of norepinephrine (NE) to an alpha-adrenergic receptor is usually excitatory, and binding to a beta-adrenergic receptor is usually inhibitory.
skeletal muscle in the rectus abdominis
The autonomic nervous system controls all of the following except the
maintaining tonicity of the muscles of the neck.
Autonomic nervous system fibers are involved in all of the following except
sensory receptor → afferent nerve fiber → interneuron → efferent nerve fiber → gland
Which one of the following best describes the order of a visceral reflex?
excitatory or inhibitory; always excitatory
The effect of autonomic fibers on target cells is ___, and/whereas the effect of somatic fibers is ___.
In response to high blood pressure, stretch receptors called ____ in the walls of arteries carrying blood to the head will trigger a reflex that causes the heart to ____ its beats per minute.
myelinated; acetylcholine (ACh)
Preganglionic fibers of the autonomic efferent pathway are ____ and secrete ____.
effector organs in the somatic reflex are closer to the spinal cord
Somatic reflexes act faster than visceral reflexes. These are all reasons for this except
cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal
The sympathetic chain of ganglia (paravertebral ganglia) is found at the ___ levels of the spinal cord.
it has short preganglionic fibers.
These are all characteristics of the parasympathetic division except
the sympathetic nervous system having a relative widespread effect.
Most preganglionic fibers in the sympathetic nervous system synapse with 10 to 20 postganglionic neurons. This results in
either the celiac and mesenteric ganglia or with celiac ganglia only.
The solar plexus is used as a name for
myelinated preganglionic; unmyelinated postganglionic
White rami carry ____ neurons, while gray rami carry ____ neurons.
its reflex arcs are associated with the spinal cord.
These are all characteristics of the enteric nervous systems except
Atropine is sometimes used to dilate the pupil for eye examination. Which receptor would atropine block?
Antagonistic effects of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system are exemplified in the control of
___ is an example of the cooperative effect between the two autonomic nervous system divisions.
longer; norepinephrine can diffuse into the bloodstream without being broken down
Sympathetic effects tend to last ___ than parasympathetic effects. One reason is that ___.
preganglionic; acetylcholine (ACh)
A neuron that synapses in the adrenal medulla is a ____ neuron, and releases the neurotransmitter ____.
decrease the amount of NE destroyed and may be used as an antidepressant.
Drugs that are monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors would most likely
A possible explanation for the effect of caffeine is that it blocks the receptor for a neuromodulator in the brain called _____, which inhibits ACh release by cholinergic neurons.
postganglionic neurons of the sympathetic division
Which one of the following is made up of primarily adrenergic fibers?