:) Chapter 15 ANS

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FALSE

The autonomic nervous system carries out many somatic reflexes that are crucial to homeostasis.

TRUE

Both divisions of the autonomic nervous system are normally active simultaneously.

FALSE

The autonomic nervous system is composed of ganglia in the central nervous system and ganglia in the periphery.

FALSE

Most autonomic efferent pathways involve one neuron.

TRUE

The parasympathetic division stimulates digestion.

FALSE

Most preganglionic fibers synapse with postganglionic fibers in the dorsal root ganglia.

FALSE

All preganglionic fibers pass through the sympathetic chain of ganglia synapsing at least once there.

TRUE

The adrenal medulla is a modified sympathetic ganglion.

TRUE

Fibers of the vagus nerve end very near or within their target organs.

FALSE

The autonomic effect on a target cell depends only on the neurotransmitter reaching that target cell.

FALSE

Most sympathetic postganglionic adrenergic fibers secrete adrenaline.

TRUE

Acetylcholine (ACh) binds to both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors.

FALSE

Acetylcholine (ACh) always has an excitatory effect.

TRUE

Binding of norepinephrine (NE) to an alpha-adrenergic receptor is usually excitatory, and binding to a beta-adrenergic receptor is usually inhibitory.

TRUE

All autonomic output originates in the central nervous system.

skeletal muscle in the rectus abdominis

The autonomic nervous system controls all of the following except the

maintaining tonicity of the muscles of the neck.

Autonomic nervous system fibers are involved in all of the following except

sensory receptor → afferent nerve fiber → interneuron → efferent nerve fiber → gland

Which one of the following best describes the order of a visceral reflex?

holds the resting heart rate below its intrinsic rate.

Parasympathetic tone

digestion.

Sympathetic nerve fibers are not associated with situations involving.

Autonomic tone

___ is the background rate of sympathetic and parasympathetic activity.

acetylcholine (ACh).

The neurotransmitter(s) associated with autonomic ganglia is(are)

excitatory or inhibitory; always excitatory

The effect of autonomic fibers on target cells is ___, and/whereas the effect of somatic fibers is ___.

denervation would cause hypersensitivity.

Autonomic nervous system

baroreceptors; decrease

In response to high blood pressure, stretch receptors called ____ in the walls of arteries carrying blood to the head will trigger a reflex that causes the heart to ____ its beats per minute.

two

The motor pathway of the autonomic nervous system usually involves __ neurons.

gray matter to autonomic ganglia.

Preganglionic fibers run from

myelinated; acetylcholine (ACh)

Preganglionic fibers of the autonomic efferent pathway are ____ and secrete ____.

effector organs in the somatic reflex are closer to the spinal cord

Somatic reflexes act faster than visceral reflexes. These are all reasons for this except

the vagus nerve.

Most fibers of the parasympathetic nervous system travel in

thoracic and lumbar

Sympathetic fibers arise only from the ____ region(s) of the spinal cord.

cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal

The sympathetic chain of ganglia (paravertebral ganglia) is found at the ___ levels of the spinal cord.

it has long preganglionic fibers.

These are all features of the sympathetic division except

it has short preganglionic fibers.

These are all characteristics of the parasympathetic division except

the sympathetic nervous system having a relative widespread effect.

Most preganglionic fibers in the sympathetic nervous system synapse with 10 to 20 postganglionic neurons. This results in

either the celiac and mesenteric ganglia or with celiac ganglia only.

The solar plexus is used as a name for

epinephrine (adrenaline).

The adrenal medulla secretes mostly

vagus nerve (CN X)

Which nerve(s) carries the most parasympathetic fibers?

brain and sacral

The parasympathetic division arises from the ___ region(s) of the spinal cord.

oculomotor nerve (CN III)

Damage to the ___ may affect near vision accommodation.

myelinated preganglionic; unmyelinated postganglionic

White rami carry ____ neurons, while gray rami carry ____ neurons.

its reflex arcs are associated with the spinal cord.

These are all characteristics of the enteric nervous systems except

adrenaline.

If a cell has α1 adrenergic receptors, it is sensitive to

adrenal medulla activity.

All of the following are under dual control of the ANS except

decrease heart rate.

Propranolol, a beta-blocker, is typically used to

norepinephrine

Which of the following is more effective in producing bronchodilation?

acetylcholine

Muscarinic receptors bind

acetylcholine; excite

The binding of ___ to a nicotinic receptor of a muscle fiber will ___ it.

muscarinic receptor

Atropine is sometimes used to dilate the pupil for eye examination. Which receptor would atropine block?

gastrointestinal motility.

Antagonistic effects of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system are exemplified in the control of

Orgasm

___ is an example of the cooperative effect between the two autonomic nervous system divisions.

nitric oxide (NO).

Sympathetic fibers do not release

longer; norepinephrine can diffuse into the bloodstream without being broken down

Sympathetic effects tend to last ___ than parasympathetic effects. One reason is that ___.

monoamine oxidase (MAO)

This enzyme breaks down norepinephrine (NE).

preganglionic; acetylcholine (ACh)

A neuron that synapses in the adrenal medulla is a ____ neuron, and releases the neurotransmitter ____.

decrease the amount of NE destroyed and may be used as an antidepressant.

Drugs that are monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors would most likely

adenosine

A possible explanation for the effect of caffeine is that it blocks the receptor for a neuromodulator in the brain called _____, which inhibits ACh release by cholinergic neurons.

postganglionic neurons of the sympathetic division

Which one of the following is made up of primarily adrenergic fibers?

hypothalamus

62. The ___ is an especially important center of autonomic control.

spinal cord.

Autonomic function receives input from all these except

Splanchnic

___ nerve(s) pass(es) throughout sympathetic ganglia without synapsing.

reduced urinary output

Which of the following is associated with the "flight or fight" reaction?

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