Counseling and Psychotherapy

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Gestalt therapy is a form of:

existential therapy

Which is not true of Gestalt therapy?

The focus is on the why of behavior.

Which of the following is not a key concept of Gestalt therapy?

intellectual understanding of one's problems

According to the Gestalt view:

awareness is by and of itself therapeutic.

The basic goal of Gestalt therapy is to assist the client to:

move from environmental support to self-support.

The impasse is the point in therapy at which clients:

experience a sense of "being stuck."

The Gestalt therapist:

pays attention to the client's nonverbal language.

Gestalt therapy can best be characterized as:

all of the above

When a person experiences an internal conflict (namely a conflict between top dog and underdog), which of the following techniques would be most appropriate?

dialogue technique

Gestalt-therapy techniques are designed to help the client:

both (a) and (b)

A Gestalt technique that is most useful when a person attempts to deny an aspect of his or her personality (such as tenderness) is:

reversal technique.

The Gestalt approach to dreams:

both (c) and (d)

Gestalt therapy encourages clients to:

all of the above

The basic goal of Gestalt therapy is:

attaining awareness, and with it greater choice.

A limitation of Gestalt therapy is that:

both (b) and (c)

A contribution of this therapeutic approach is that:

it stresses doing and experiencing, as opposed to talking about problems.

According to Gestalt theory, people use avoidance in order to:

all the above

Perls's concept of the five layers of neurosis includes all of the following except:

the borderline layer.

According to Gestalt theory, all of the following are true about contact except

withdrawal after a good contact experience indicates neurosis.

In Gestalt therapy, the relationship between client and counselor is seen as:

an I/Thou interaction.

Which of the following is not true about Gestalt techniques?

Experiments are always carried out during the therapy session, rather than outside it.

Which of the following is not true about Fritz Perls?

During his childhood, he was a model student.

Gestalt therapists say that clients resist contact by means of:

all of the above

Which of the following aspects of a client's use of language would a Gestalt therapist not focus on?


Which of the following is not true about the Gestalt view of the role of confrontation in therapy?

It is not possible to be both confrontive and gentle with clients.

Which of the following Gestalt techniques involves asking one person in a group to speak to each of the other group members?

making the rounds

The process of distraction, or fleeting awareness, that makes it difficult to maintain sustained contact is the definition of:


The process of turning back to ourselves what we would like to do to someone else is the definition of:


The tendency to uncritically accept others' beliefs without assimilating or internalizing them is the definition of:


The process of the blurring of awareness of differentiation between the self and the environment is the definition of:


What is a limitation (or limitations) of Gestalt therapy as it is applied to working with culturally diverse populations?

all of the above

Behavior therapy is grounded in:

the psychodynamic aspects of a person.
the principles of learning.

Behavior therapy assumes that:

behavior is learned.

Behavior therapy is characterized by:

all of the above

Behavior therapy is based on:

a) applying the experimental method to the therapeutic process.
e) both (b) and (c)

In behavior therapy, it is generally agreed that:

the client should decide the treatment goals.

The main goal of behavior therapy is:

eliminating unadaptive learning and providing for more effective learning.

Which is not true of behavior therapy?

Insight is necessary for behavior change to occur.

What is the function of the behavior therapist?

all of the above

According to most behavior therapists, a good working relationship between the client and therapist is:

a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for behavior change to occur.

Which of the following is not true regarding behavior therapy?

The client is merely passive while the therapist uses techniques.

Which of the following is not a key concept of behavior therapy?

Present behavior is stressed over past behavior.

Which technique is aimed at teaching the client to emit a response that is inconsistent with anxiety?

systematic desensitization

Behavior therapy techniques:

all of the above

Behavior therapy is suited for:

all of the above

What is (are) the contribution(s) of behavior therapy?

both (c) and (d)

Which statement contains the most truth?

Contemporary behavior therapy focuses on how people are determined by their social and cultural environments.

Which of the following is not a basic characteristic of behavior therapy?

There is an emphasis on client expression of feelings

Who has done most of the work in the area of modeling?

Albert Bandura

B.F. Skinner is associated with which of the following trends in the behavioral approach?

operant conditioning

Which of the following is not true about how behavior therapists function in the therapeutic setting?

They use techniques such as summarizing, reflection, clarification, and open-ended questioning.

Which of the following is not a characteristic of an effective self-management program?

A single strategy is usually more useful than a combination of strategies because it eliminates confusion.

What is not a part of the steps in a self-directed change program?

exploration of one's family constellation

In terms of ethical accountability, behavior therapy:

provides a basis for responsible practice.

Which of the following distinguishes the cognitive trend in behavior therapy from the trends of classical and operant conditioning?

the reference to mediational concepts in understanding behavior

According to Bandura, which of the following are characteristic of effective models (whether they be live, symbolic or multiple)?


Which of the following clinical strategies is not necessarily employed during assertion training?

self-monitoring via keeping a behavioral diary

Which of the following would not be considered a feature of a good self-contract?

It involves the participation of another person.

A limitation of behavior therapy is:

none of the above

Wolpe's systematic desensitization is based on the principles of:

classical conditioning.

The situation in which behaviors are emitted from an active organism is known as:

operant conditioning.

Skinner's view of controlling behavior is based on the principles of

operant conditioning.

__________ involves the removal of unpleasant stimuli from a situation once a certain behavior has occurred.

Negative reinforcement

Cognitive-behavioral therapy is:

now established as a part of mainstream behavior therapy.

All of the following are characteristics of behavioral approaches except:

Behavior therapy employs the same procedures to every client with a particular dysfunctional behavior.

In conducting a behavioral assessment, the client's functioning is taken into account in which area(s)?

behavioral dimensions

Goals serve the function in behavioral counseling of:

all of the above

Behavior therapists tend to:

all of the above

All of the following are steps in the use of systematic desensitization except for:


Most of the assertion-training methods are based on principles of:

the cognitive-behavioral therapies.

Effective assertion-training programs:

both (a) and (b)

Self-management strategies include:

all of the above

If your client wanted to change a behavior, for instance, learning to control smoking, drinking, or eating, which behavioral technique would be most appropriate to employ?


A temporary strategy that is used until people can implement new behaviors in everyday life is known as:


From a multimodal therapy perspective, enduring change is seen as a function of:

combined techniques, strategies, and modalities.

Which of the following is not based on the principles of operant conditioning?

cognitive behavior therapy

The following is (are) example(s) of exposure therapy:

all of the above

In vivo flooding consists of:

intense and prolonged exposure to the actual anxiety-producing stimuli.

Dialectical behavior therapy

is a promising blend of behavioral and psychoanalytic techniques.

Which is not true of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT)?

DBT is a blend of Adlerian concepts and behavioral techniques

The cognitive-behavioral approach to therapy stresses:

thinking, judging, analyzing, and doing.

REBT is based on the philosophical assumption that human beings are:

potentially able to think rationally but have a tendency toward irrational thinking.

REBT views emotional disturbances as the result of:

irrational thinking and behaving.

According to REBT, what is the core of most emotional disturbance?


REBT contends that people:

do not need to be accepted and loved.

According to REBT, we develop emotional disturbances because of:

our belief about certain events.

REBT employs what kind of method to help people resolve their emotional, behavioral problems?

the philosophical method

The main therapeutic goal of REBT is:

none of the above

The main function of the rational emotive behavior therapist is to:

challenge clients to reevaluate their ideas and philosophy of life.

REBT can best be considered as:

all of the above

Ellis contends that human beings are:

all of the above

The role of the client in rational emotive behavior therapy is like that of a:


Which method is often employed in REBT?

all of the above

A feature of REBT that distinguishes it from other cognitive-behavioral therapies is:

both (a) and (d)

Beck's cognitive therapy involves:

all of the above

According to Meichenbaum, behavioral change:

both (a) and (d)

Which of the following is the correct order of the three phases of Meichenbaum's stress-inoculation program?


According to Ellis, we develop emotional and behavioral difficulties because:

we think of simple preferences as dire needs.

An REBT therapist would contend that anxiety stems from:

the internal repetition of irrational sentences.

In REBT, what method is taught to clients to help them challenge irrational beliefs?

disputational method

Which of the following is true about the relationship between a client and a rational emotive behavior therapist?

It is characterized by full acceptance and tolerance

Which of the following REBT techniques helps a client gradually learn to deal with anxiety and challenge basic irrational thinking?

cognitive homework

According to REBT, it is important to change the way one uses language because:

all of the above

The REBT technique that involves having clients imagine themselves in situations where they feel inappropriate feelings is called:

rational-emotive imagery.

Which of the following is not true about role playing in REBT?

It is a way of surfacing unfinished business.

Which REBT technique involves having the client do the very thing they avoid because of "what people might think?"

shame-attacking exercises

All of the following are true as they apply to self-instructional therapy, except that:

it is also known as cognitive behavior modification.

Which of the following is not part of the five-step treatment procedure used in a coping-skills program?

evaluating the anxiety level of the client by using both physiological and psychological

All of the following are cognitive methods of REBT except for:

shame-attacking exercises.

Which of the following is not true of Beck's cognitive therapy?

It is based on the assumption that the way people feel and behave is determined by the way they structure their experience.

One of the main ways that Beck's cognitive therapy differs from Ellis's REBT is that in Beck's approach, more so than in Ellis's approach:

the quality of the therapeutic relationship is basic to the therapy process

Meichenbaum's cognitive behavior modification, what is given primary importance?

inner speech

Stress inoculation training consists of:

all of the above

Cognitive therapy is based on the assumption that:

cognitions are the major determinants of how we feel and act.

In cognitive therapy, therapy techniques are designed to:

assist individuals in making alternative interpretations of events in their daily living.

The type of cognitive error that involves thinking and interpreting in all-or-nothing terms, or in categorizing experiences in either/or extremes, is known as:

magnification and exaggeration.

Beck's cognitive therapy differs from Ellis's REBT in that Beck's approach emphasizes:

all of the above

Beck's cognitive therapy has been most widely applied to the treatment of:


In Meichenbaum's self-instructional therapy, focus is on:

detecting and debating irrational thoughts.

The cognitive distortion of making conclusions without supporting and relevant evidence is:

arbitrary inferences.

The cognitive distortion of making conclusions without supporting and relevant evidence is:

selective abstraction.

The process of holding extreme beliefs on the basis of a single incident and applying them inappropriately to dissimilar events or settings is known as:


The tendency for individuals to relate external events to themselves, even when there is no basis for making this connection, is known as:


The cognitive distortion that involves portraying one's identity on the basis of imperfections and mistakes made in the past and allowing them to define one's true identity is:

labeling and mislabeling.

To a large degree, cognitive therapy is:

a psychoeducational model.

Of the following cognitive techniques, which one would Beck be least likely to employ?

exploring cognitive distortions

According to Meichenbaum, the first step in the change process involves:

observing one's behavior and thinking patterns.

The constructionist perspective in cognitive therapy holds that:

there are multiple realities and a therapist's task is to help clients appreciate how they construct their realities and how they author their own stories.

Which of the following is not a characteristic of Meichenbaum's constructivist approach to cognitive behavior therapy?

It is more structured and more directive than standard cognitive therapy.

From the perspective of feminist therapy, the socialization of women inevitably affects their:

All of the above

The four feminist philosophies of liberal, cultural, radical, and socialist have in common

the same view of the sources of oppression of women.

Feminist therapists, regardless of their philosophical orientation, believe all of the following except that:

human development and interaction are similar across races, cultures, and nations.

All of the following are characteristic of gender-biased theories except for the concept or practice of:

interactionist orientation.

Which of the feminist principles views the therapist as simply another source of information, rather than as the expert in the therapy process?

the counseling relationship is egalitarian.

Which of the following feminist principles recognizes the importance of working against oppression on the basis of race, class, culture, religious beliefs, sexual orientation, age, and disability?

an integrated analysis of oppression.

Which of the following feminist principles implies that what has been typically viewed as individual clients' personal problems are really socially and politically caused?

the person is political.

All of the following are goals of feminist therapy except for:

resolving intrapsychic conflicts from early childhood.

Although feminist therapy shares many of the premises of person-centered therapy, feminist therapy does not agree with the notion that:

the therapeutic relationship is, in an of itself, sufficient to produce change.

Which of the following themes would clients in feminist therapy be least likely to explore?

transference reactions toward their therapist

Which of the following techniques would a feminist therapist be least likely to employ?

interpretation of the transference relationship

Of the following, which intervention would a feminist therapist probably consider most essential?

social action

All of the following are reasons many feminist therapists do not use diagnostic labels, or use them reluctantly, except for which one?

Diagnostic labels focus on the social factors that cause dysfunctional behavior.

An alternative to traditional diagnosis and assessment that is preferred by feminist therapists is:

gender role analysis.

Which of the following interventions involves a shift from "blaming the victim" to consideration of social factors in the environment that contribute to a client's problem?


All of the following strategies are unique to feminist therapy except for:

cognitive restructuring.

Cognitive behavioral therapies and feminist therapy have a number of features in common. Of the following, which is not one an assumption shared by both approaches?

taking the position that the therapeutic relationship alone is necessary and sufficient to bring about change

A defining theme in the practice of feminist therapy is:

all of the above.

A feminist therapy is likely to become an advocate for change in the social structure by arguing for:

all of the above.

Of the following, which is one of the major contributions that feminists have made to the field of counseling?

paving the way for gender-sensitive practice

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