Which of the following is not a key concept of Gestalt therapy?
intellectual understanding of one's problems
The basic goal of Gestalt therapy is to assist the client to:
move from environmental support to self-support.
When a person experiences an internal conflict (namely a conflict between top dog and underdog), which of the following techniques would be most appropriate?
A Gestalt technique that is most useful when a person attempts to deny an aspect of his or her personality (such as tenderness) is:
A contribution of this therapeutic approach is that:
it stresses doing and experiencing, as opposed to talking about problems.
Perls's concept of the five layers of neurosis includes all of the following except:
the borderline layer.
According to Gestalt theory, all of the following are true about contact except
withdrawal after a good contact experience indicates neurosis.
In Gestalt therapy, the relationship between client and counselor is seen as:
an I/Thou interaction.
Which of the following is not true about Gestalt techniques?
Experiments are always carried out during the therapy session, rather than outside it.
Which of the following aspects of a client's use of language would a Gestalt therapist not focus on?
Which of the following is not true about the Gestalt view of the role of confrontation in therapy?
It is not possible to be both confrontive and gentle with clients.
Which of the following Gestalt techniques involves asking one person in a group to speak to each of the other group members?
making the rounds
The process of distraction, or fleeting awareness, that makes it difficult to maintain sustained contact is the definition of:
The process of turning back to ourselves what we would like to do to someone else is the definition of:
The tendency to uncritically accept others' beliefs without assimilating or internalizing them is the definition of:
The process of the blurring of awareness of differentiation between the self and the environment is the definition of:
What is a limitation (or limitations) of Gestalt therapy as it is applied to working with culturally diverse populations?
all of the above
Behavior therapy is based on:
a) applying the experimental method to the therapeutic process.
e) both (b) and (c)
The main goal of behavior therapy is:
eliminating unadaptive learning and providing for more effective learning.
According to most behavior therapists, a good working relationship between the client and therapist is:
a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for behavior change to occur.
Which of the following is not true regarding behavior therapy?
The client is merely passive while the therapist uses techniques.
Which of the following is not a key concept of behavior therapy?
Present behavior is stressed over past behavior.
Which technique is aimed at teaching the client to emit a response that is inconsistent with anxiety?
Which statement contains the most truth?
Contemporary behavior therapy focuses on how people are determined by their social and cultural environments.
Which of the following is not a basic characteristic of behavior therapy?
There is an emphasis on client expression of feelings
B.F. Skinner is associated with which of the following trends in the behavioral approach?
Which of the following is not true about how behavior therapists function in the therapeutic setting?
They use techniques such as summarizing, reflection, clarification, and open-ended questioning.
Which of the following is not a characteristic of an effective self-management program?
A single strategy is usually more useful than a combination of strategies because it eliminates confusion.
What is not a part of the steps in a self-directed change program?
exploration of one's family constellation
Which of the following distinguishes the cognitive trend in behavior therapy from the trends of classical and operant conditioning?
the reference to mediational concepts in understanding behavior
According to Bandura, which of the following are characteristic of effective models (whether they be live, symbolic or multiple)?
Which of the following clinical strategies is not necessarily employed during assertion training?
self-monitoring via keeping a behavioral diary
Which of the following would not be considered a feature of a good self-contract?
It involves the participation of another person.
The situation in which behaviors are emitted from an active organism is known as:
__________ involves the removal of unpleasant stimuli from a situation once a certain behavior has occurred.
All of the following are characteristics of behavioral approaches except:
Behavior therapy employs the same procedures to every client with a particular dysfunctional behavior.
In conducting a behavioral assessment, the client's functioning is taken into account in which area(s)?
Most of the assertion-training methods are based on principles of:
the cognitive-behavioral therapies.
If your client wanted to change a behavior, for instance, learning to control smoking, drinking, or eating, which behavioral technique would be most appropriate to employ?
A temporary strategy that is used until people can implement new behaviors in everyday life is known as:
From a multimodal therapy perspective, enduring change is seen as a function of:
combined techniques, strategies, and modalities.
Which of the following is not based on the principles of operant conditioning?
cognitive behavior therapy
In vivo flooding consists of:
intense and prolonged exposure to the actual anxiety-producing stimuli.
Which is not true of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT)?
DBT is a blend of Adlerian concepts and behavioral techniques
REBT is based on the philosophical assumption that human beings are:
potentially able to think rationally but have a tendency toward irrational thinking.
REBT employs what kind of method to help people resolve their emotional, behavioral problems?
the philosophical method
The main function of the rational emotive behavior therapist is to:
challenge clients to reevaluate their ideas and philosophy of life.
A feature of REBT that distinguishes it from other cognitive-behavioral therapies is:
both (a) and (d)
Which of the following is the correct order of the three phases of Meichenbaum's stress-inoculation program?
According to Ellis, we develop emotional and behavioral difficulties because:
we think of simple preferences as dire needs.
An REBT therapist would contend that anxiety stems from:
the internal repetition of irrational sentences.
In REBT, what method is taught to clients to help them challenge irrational beliefs?
Which of the following is true about the relationship between a client and a rational emotive behavior therapist?
It is characterized by full acceptance and tolerance
Which of the following REBT techniques helps a client gradually learn to deal with anxiety and challenge basic irrational thinking?
The REBT technique that involves having clients imagine themselves in situations where they feel inappropriate feelings is called:
Which of the following is not true about role playing in REBT?
It is a way of surfacing unfinished business.
Which REBT technique involves having the client do the very thing they avoid because of "what people might think?"
All of the following are true as they apply to self-instructional therapy, except that:
it is also known as cognitive behavior modification.
Which of the following is not part of the five-step treatment procedure used in a coping-skills program?
evaluating the anxiety level of the client by using both physiological and psychological
Which of the following is not true of Beck's cognitive therapy?
It is based on the assumption that the way people feel and behave is determined by the way they structure their experience.
One of the main ways that Beck's cognitive therapy differs from Ellis's REBT is that in Beck's approach, more so than in Ellis's approach:
the quality of the therapeutic relationship is basic to the therapy process
Cognitive therapy is based on the assumption that:
cognitions are the major determinants of how we feel and act.
In cognitive therapy, therapy techniques are designed to:
assist individuals in making alternative interpretations of events in their daily living.
The type of cognitive error that involves thinking and interpreting in all-or-nothing terms, or in categorizing experiences in either/or extremes, is known as:
magnification and exaggeration.
Beck's cognitive therapy differs from Ellis's REBT in that Beck's approach emphasizes:
all of the above
In Meichenbaum's self-instructional therapy, focus is on:
detecting and debating irrational thoughts.
The cognitive distortion of making conclusions without supporting and relevant evidence is:
The cognitive distortion of making conclusions without supporting and relevant evidence is:
The process of holding extreme beliefs on the basis of a single incident and applying them inappropriately to dissimilar events or settings is known as:
The tendency for individuals to relate external events to themselves, even when there is no basis for making this connection, is known as:
The cognitive distortion that involves portraying one's identity on the basis of imperfections and mistakes made in the past and allowing them to define one's true identity is:
labeling and mislabeling.
Of the following cognitive techniques, which one would Beck be least likely to employ?
exploring cognitive distortions
According to Meichenbaum, the first step in the change process involves:
observing one's behavior and thinking patterns.
The constructionist perspective in cognitive therapy holds that:
there are multiple realities and a therapist's task is to help clients appreciate how they construct their realities and how they author their own stories.
Which of the following is not a characteristic of Meichenbaum's constructivist approach to cognitive behavior therapy?
It is more structured and more directive than standard cognitive therapy.
From the perspective of feminist therapy, the socialization of women inevitably affects their:
All of the above
The four feminist philosophies of liberal, cultural, radical, and socialist have in common
the same view of the sources of oppression of women.
Feminist therapists, regardless of their philosophical orientation, believe all of the following except that:
human development and interaction are similar across races, cultures, and nations.
All of the following are characteristic of gender-biased theories except for the concept or practice of:
Which of the feminist principles views the therapist as simply another source of information, rather than as the expert in the therapy process?
the counseling relationship is egalitarian.
Which of the following feminist principles recognizes the importance of working against oppression on the basis of race, class, culture, religious beliefs, sexual orientation, age, and disability?
an integrated analysis of oppression.
Which of the following feminist principles implies that what has been typically viewed as individual clients' personal problems are really socially and politically caused?
the person is political.
All of the following are goals of feminist therapy except for:
resolving intrapsychic conflicts from early childhood.
Although feminist therapy shares many of the premises of person-centered therapy, feminist therapy does not agree with the notion that:
the therapeutic relationship is, in an of itself, sufficient to produce change.
Which of the following themes would clients in feminist therapy be least likely to explore?
transference reactions toward their therapist
Which of the following techniques would a feminist therapist be least likely to employ?
interpretation of the transference relationship
Of the following, which intervention would a feminist therapist probably consider most essential?
All of the following are reasons many feminist therapists do not use diagnostic labels, or use them reluctantly, except for which one?
Diagnostic labels focus on the social factors that cause dysfunctional behavior.
An alternative to traditional diagnosis and assessment that is preferred by feminist therapists is:
gender role analysis.
Which of the following interventions involves a shift from "blaming the victim" to consideration of social factors in the environment that contribute to a client's problem?
Cognitive behavioral therapies and feminist therapy have a number of features in common. Of the following, which is not one an assumption shared by both approaches?
taking the position that the therapeutic relationship alone is necessary and sufficient to bring about change
A feminist therapy is likely to become an advocate for change in the social structure by arguing for:
all of the above.
Of the following, which is one of the major contributions that feminists have made to the field of counseling?
paving the way for gender-sensitive practice
Which of the following is not associated with the "third wave" of feminism?
cognitive behavioral feminists
The constructs of feminist theory, in contrast to traditional theories, include all of the following except for which characteristic?
The relational-cultural theory emphasizes the vital role:
that relationships and connectedness with others play in the lives of women.
Which of the following principles of feminist psychology provides a major vehicle for integrating diversity into feminist therapy?
all of the above
Which of the following is true of narrative therapy and solution-focused therapy?
The client is an expert on his or her own life.
Of the following, a major goal of narrative therapy is to
invite clients to describe their experience in new and fresh language, and in doing this opening up new vistas of what is possible.
Which of the following interventions is least likely to be used by a narrative therapist?
power analysis and intervention
All of the following are techniques used in solution-focused therapy except for
using the reflecting team
The therapeutic process in solution-focused brief therapy involves all of the following except for the notion
that therapists are experts in assessment and diagnosis.
Which of the following is false as it applies to the practice of solution-focused brief therapy?
Using techniques in therapy is a way of discounting a client's capacity to find his or her own way.
In solution-focused therapy, which of the following kind of relationship is characterized by the client and therapist jointly identifying a problem and a solution to work toward?
Pre-therapy change is a solution-focused therapy technique that
asks clients to address changes that have taken place from the time they made an appointment to the first therapy session.
Which of these solution-focused therapy techniques involves asking clients to describe life without the problem?
the miracle question
In narrative therapy, the process of finding evidence to bolster a new view of the person as competent enough to have stood up to or defeated the dominance or oppression of the problem refers to
search for unique outcome
Which of the following statements about creating alternative stories is not true?
The narrative therapist analyzes and interprets the meaning of a client's story.
From a social constructionist perspective, change begins with:
deconstructing the power of cultural narratives.
Of the following, what is an interest that social constructionists tend to share?
generating new meaning in the lives of individuals
The techniques of externalization and developing unique events are associated primarily with:
the narrative approach.