Transcription, Translation and Protein Synthesis

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88 terms · Note cards pertaining to transcription, translation and protein synthesis. These were formulated from notes taken in a course that I am taking called Biomolecular Processes.

The information in DNA that is transferred to mRNA as a sequence of codons for the synthesis of a protein is called:

a.) synthesis code
b.) genetic code
c.) DNA code
d.) RNA code

Answer: B

A sequence of three bases in mRNA that specifies a certain amino acid to be placed in a protein.

a.) order bases
b.) codons
c.) messenger activators
d.) messenger transport codes

Answer: B

In DNA:

a.) A pairs with T
b.) G pairs with C
c.) C pairs with T
d.) Both A and B
e.) All, A, B and C

Answer: D

Something having an affinity for water; readily absorbing or dissolving in water is:

a.) hydrophilic
b.) hydrophobic
c.) hydroscopic
d.) hydrostatic

Answer: A

Something tending to not dissolve in, mix with or be wetted by water is:

a.) hydrophilic
b.) hydrophobic
c.) hydroscopic
d.) hydrostatic

Answer: B

CTT or CTC is ________ which is hydrophilic.

a.) amino acid
b.) carboxyl acid
c.) glutamic acid
d.) nitrogenous acid

Answer: C

CAT or CAC is _____ which is hydrophobic.

a.) glutamic acid
b.) amino acid
c.) valine
d.) lipase

Answer: C

In RNA,
a.) T pairs with C
b.) A pairs with U
c.) G pairs with C
d.) both A and B
e.) both B and C

Answer: E

Binding small molecules together to form larger molecules is called:

a.) synthesis
b.) protein synthesis
c.) photosynthesis
d.) synergy

Answer: A

Binding together of amino acids to form polypeptides.

a.) synthesis
b.) protein synthesis
c.) photosynthesis
d.) synergy

Answer: B

Monomers (little units) that are covalently bonded together by dehydration synthesis to form polypeptides are called:

a.) lipids
b.) macromolecules
c.) proteins
d.) amino acids

Answer: D

One or more polypeptides are covalently bonded together to form:

a.) lipids
b.) macromolecules
c.) proteins
d.) amino acids

Answer: C

There are how many different amino acids?

a.) 4
b.) 20
c.) 40
d.) 220

Answer: B

How many amino acids can there be in cytoplasm, where they will be used to form polypeptides in protein synthesis?

a.) 4
b.) 20
c.) 40
d.) over 100

Answer: D

Protein synthesis requires two steps:

a.) transfusion and cotusion
b.) transcription and translation
c.) evaporation and condensation
d.) carbonation and oxidation

Answer: B

The transfer of information from a DNA molecule into a sequence of bases or an mRNA molecule.

a.) oxidation
b.) transcription
c.) translation
d.) genetic coding

Answer: B

Also called protein synthesis, this is the transfer of information from an mRNA molecule into a polypeptide involving a change of language from nucleic acids to amino acids.

a.) oxidation
b.) transcription
c.) translation
d.) genetic coding

Answer: C

This occurs in the ribosomes of a cell:
a.) transcription
b.) translation

Answer: B

This occurs in the nucleus of a human cell:

a.) transcription
b.) translation

Answer: A

An organelle of the cell where protein is synthesized, this is where translation takes place:

a.) Golgi apparatus
b.) smooth endoplasmic reticulum
c.) rough endoplasmic reticulum
d.) ribosome

Answer: D

Organelle of the cell that contains ribosomes and modifies proteins synthesized on ribosomes.

a.) Golgi apparatus
b.) smooth endoplasmic reticulum
c.) rough endoplasmic reticulum
d.) ribosome

Answer: C

Synthesizes fats and proteins:

a.) Golgi apparatus
b.) smooth endoplasmic reticulum
c.) rough endoplasmic reticulum
d.) ribosome

Answer: B

Is an organelle of the cell that further modifies, sorts, packages and ships proteins secreted by the cell.

a.) Golgi apparatus
b.) smooth endoplasmic reticulum
c.) rough endoplasmic reticulum
d.) ribosome

Answer: A. The Golgi apparatus is also known as the Golgi complex.

This dictates the sequence of amino acids that will compose the proteins in the cell

a.) mRNA
b.) rRNA
c.) tRNA
d.) DNA

Answer: D

These portions of the DNA molecule are used by the cell to code for proteins and as a template for RNA.

a.) codons
b.) genes
c.) mRNA codons
d.) enzymes

Answer: B

One gene can contain _____ of _______ pairs.

a.) thousands, nucleotide
b.) thousands, chromosome
c.) millions, chromatin
d.) billions, chromatin

Answer: A

______ types of RNA are produced from _____ genes on DNA.

a.) 2, random
b.) 3, hereditary
c.) 4, selected
d.) 3, specific

Answer: D

Messenger RNA:

a.) tRNA
b.) mRNA
c.) rRNA
d.) DNA

Answer: B

Ribosomal RNA:

a.) tRNA
b.) mRNA
c.) rRNA
d.) DNA

Answer: C

Transfer RNA:

a.) tRNA
b.) mRNA
c.) rRNA
d.) DNA

Answer: A

The most prevalent type of RNA and a major component of the ribosomes.

a.) tRNA
b.) mRNA
c.) rRNA
d.) DNA

Answer: C

It transcribes and carries the genetic code for protein synthesis from DNA in the nucleus of the cell to the ribosome in the cytoplasm of the cell.

a.) tRNA
b.) mRNA
c.) rRNA
d.) DNA

Answer: B

Places a specific amino acid into a peptide chain at the ribosome. There is one or more of these for each of the 20 different amino acids.

a.) tRNA
b.) mRNA
c.) rRNA
d.) DNA

Answer: A

Each group of 3 bases is called a:

a.) codon
b.) proton
c.) gene
d.) ribosome

Answer: A

A(n) _____ codon is a complementary copy of the 3 bases (DNA codon) that were on the gene template of DNA.

a.) RNA
b.) rRNA
c.) mRNA
d.) tRNA

Answer: C

Each mRNA codon codes for a(n)

a.) amino acid
b.) protein
c.) gene
d.) message

Answer: A

mRNA carries a series of how many codons?

a.) 0
b.) 1
c.) very few
d.) very many

Answer: D

There are how many possible mRNA codons?

a.) 24
b.) 64
c.) 244
d.) approximately one million

Answer: B

Of the 64 possible mRNA codons, 3 are ____ codons, so there are 61 mRNA codons that code for amino acids.

a.) stop
b.) caution
c.) inactive
d.) tRNA

Answer: A

There are 20 known amino acids so some amino acids have how many mRNA codons?

a.) 20
b.) 0
c.) more than 1
d.) more than 20

Answer: C

These complement mRNA codons:

a.) rRNA codons
b.) rRNA anti-codons
c.) tRNA codons
d.) tRNA anti-codons

Answer: D

There are how many different tRNA anti-codons:

a.) 16
b.) 61
c.) 121
d.) 144

Answer: B

Each tRNA anti-codon carries the amino acid

a.) with the mRNA codon
b.) directly from a mRNA codon
c.) directly to a mRNA codon
d.) specified by a mRNA codon

Answer: D

These are located on rough endoplasmic reticulum or floating free in the cytoplasm of the cell

a.) chromosomes
b.) ribosomes
c.) mitochondria
d.) Golgi apparatus

Answer: B

Each ribosome of human cells is made of ____ rRNA molecules and ___ proteins

a.) 4, 82
b.) 20, 20
c.) 4, 20
d.) 20, 64

Answer: A

Ribosomes have a

a.) large subunite
b.) small subunit
c.) large subunit and small subunit
d.) no subunit

Answer: C

Ribosomes hold mRNA at the starting end which is the ___ end
a.) '3
b.) '4
c.) '5
d.) '6

Answer: C

Ribosomes move down mRNA one codon at a time as each codon is

a.) transcripted by tRNA
b.) translated by tRNA
c.) recognized by tRNA
d.) transferred by tRNA

Answer: B

Protein synthesis occurs in 2 places in cells, which are:

a.) cytoplasm, rough endoplasmic reticulum
b.) cytoplasm, smooth endoplasmic reticulum
c.) nucleus, chromosomes
d.) chromatids, mitochondria

Answer: A

Proteins synthesized in the cytoplasm are proteins

a.) missing from the cell
b.) flooding the cell
c.) needed by the cell
d.) splitting in the cell

Answer: C

Proteins synthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum may be

a.) digested by the cell
b.) excreted by the cell due to being recognized as waste.
c.) secreted from the cell for functions elsewhere
d.) evaporated from the cell

Answer:C

Cells that secrete more than other cells have more
a.) endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus
b.) endoplasmic reticulum and nuclei
c.) carbohydrates and wastes
d.) phosphates and electrolytes

Answer: A

Some proteins enter the endoplasmic reticulum ___1___ where they are folded into ____2____ molecules. Then they are bound by membranes and sent by the ___3____, where some proteins are further modified.

Answer: 1- cisterna, 2- globular, 3. Golgi apparatus

An example of proteins entering endoplasmic reticulum, carbohydrates being bonded by a protein forms a:
a.) glycogen
b.) glucose molecule
c.) globular protein
d.) glycoprotein

Answer: D

This controls when protein synthesis occurs and is accomplished by 2 types of molecules which stop or start RNA transcription.

a.) gene moderation
b.) codon regulation
c.) mRNA translation
d.) gene regulation

Answer: D

There are 2 types of molecules which start or stop RNA transcription and they are:

a.) flexor and globule molecules
b.) macro and micro molecules
c.) repressor and inducer molecules
d.) inhibitory and active molecules

Answer: C

These molecules keep genes turned OFF so RNA cannot be transcribed from DNA.

a.) Inducer
b.) Repressor
c.) active
d.) inhibitory

Answer: B

If a gene is normally on, then this type of molecule may turn the gene off after enough protein has been synthesized.

a.) Inducer
b.) Repressor
c.) active
d.) inhibitory

Answer: B

This type of molecule counteracts a repressor molecule and turns a gene ON, stimulating RNA transcription.

a.) Inducer
b.) aggressor
c.) active
d.) inhibitory

Answer: A

Transcription has how many steps?
a.) 3
b.) 7
c.) 12
d.) 15

Answer: A

In transcription, _______ splits the DNA molecule into 2 strands at a gene on one of the strands.

a.) carbon
b.) mitosis
c.) RNA polymerase
d.) sucrase

Answer: C

In transcription, a gene on ____ strand(s) is transcribed

a.) 0
b.) 1
c.) 2
d.) 20

Answer: B

In transcription, this identifies the beginning of the gene:

a.) promoter nucleotide sequence
b.) gene identification agent
c.) amino acid agent
d.) gene nucleotide sequence

Answer: A

In transcription, RNA nucleotides, complementary to the DNA nucleotides on the gene form a

a.) rRNA strand
b.) nucleotide
c.) mRNA strand
d.) DNA strand

Answer: C

In transcription, when RNA polyermase reaches a sequence of bases called a _______, transcription ends.

a.) cofactor
b.) end product
c.) codon
d.) terminator

Answer: D

In transcription, while processing mRNA, a "cap" of 1 _____ is added:
a.) adenine
b.) guanine
c.) uracil
d.) puridine

Answer: B

In transcription, while processing mRNA, a tail of several _____ are added.

a.) adenines
b.) guanines
c.) uracils
d.) puridines

Answer: A

In transcription, the "cap" and "tail" protect mRNA from ________ and help the ribosomes ______ the mRNA

a.) nucleic acids, activate
b.) waste products, secrete
c.) acids, excrete
d.) cellular enzymes, recognize

Answer: D

In transcription, pieces of non-coding mRNA are called:

a.) protons
b.) introns
c.) ganglions
d.) exons

Answer: B

In inscription, Introns are

a.) digested by mRNA
b.) absorbed by mRNA
c.) cut out of mRNA
d.) built by mRNA

Answer: C

In inscription, these are the coding portions of mRNA and are left in place on the mRNA.

a.) protons
b.) introns
c.) ganglions
d.) exons

Answer: D

In transcription, this process involves the introns and exons:

a.) RNA division
b.) RNA multiplication
c.) RNA coding
d.) RNA splicing

Answer: D

In inscription, the mRNA is a strand of codons that are ______ to the DNA codons on the gene and it detaches from the DNA strand and moves out of the ______.

a.) adjacent, ribosome
b.) complementary, ribosome
c.) complementary, nucleus
d.) adjacent, Golgi apparatus

Answer: C

Translation has this amount of steps:

a.) 3
b.) 5
c.) 7
d.) 12

Answer: D

In translation, the processed mRNA carries it's codons from DNA to the:

a.) ribosome
b.) nucleus
c.) Golgi apparatus
d.) receptors

Answer: A

In translation, the ribosome holds mRNA at the start codon, ____.

a.) TUC
b.) UTT
c.) AUG
d.) AUT

Answer: C

AUG codes for the amino acid,

a.) methionine
b.) thymine
c.) uracil
d.) petradine

Answer: A

A 3 base codon complementary to a mRNA codon and carried by tRNA is called a(n)

a.) anti-gene
b.) antibody
c.) antigen
d.) anti-codon

Answer: D

In translation, each ____ carries an amino acid and has an anti-codon on one end.

a.) rRNA
b.) tRNA
c.) codon
d.) mRNA

Answer: B

In translation, this enzyme helps bind the amino acid to the tRNA:

a.) aminoacyl tRNA synthesase
b.) acidic mRNA synthesase
c.) aminoacyl tRNA lipase
d.) acidic mRNA lipase

Answer: A

In translation, a tRNA with the anti-codon, ____, is attracted by a hydrogen bond to the start codon, ____ on the mRNA

a.) AUG, UAC
b.) TAC, UAC
c.) UAC, TAG
d.) UAC, AUG

Answer: D

In translation, the tRNA that carries the amino acid, Methionine, enters the ribosome at the __ site and moves to the ___ site.

a.) C, O
b.) A, P
c.) O, C
d.) B-, S

Answer: B

In the 5th step of translation, the ribosome moves to the ____ codon on mRNA.

a.) 2nd
b.) 4th
c.) 10th
d.) 20th

Answer: A

In translation, the second amino acid is bonded with a covalent peptide bond to Methionine by dehydration synthesis with the help of the enzyme,

a.) peptidyl ribose
b.) peptose transferase
c.) peptidyl transferase
d.) peptidyl messengase

Answer: C

In translation, the first tRNA moves to the ___ site and exits the ribosome while the 2nd tRNA moves to the ___ site and a third tRNA moves to the ___ site.

a.) B-, S, F
b.) E, P, A
c.) P, A, B-
d.) A, E, P

Answer: B

In translation, each amino acid forms a peptide bond with the previous amino acid, resulting in a(n)

a.) additional peptide bond
b.) polypeptide bond
c.) Hydrogen bond
d.) covalent bond

Answer: B

In translation, the ribosome ends translation when it reaches a stop codon. Three possible stop codons are:

a.) CAT, CTA, CGA
b.) GTU, GLU, GLY
c.) TCA, TAC, TUC
d.) UUA, UAG, UGA

Answer: D

In the final step of translation, after the ribosome separates from the mRNA and the polypeptide, the polypeptide (protein) is used by the cell as it is or it may be bonded to one or more other polypeptides before it can _____:

a.) send messages
b.) move
c.) function
d.) divide

Answer: C

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