Unit 6: Learning (Operant Conditioning)

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Classical conditioning associates ___ stimuli with stimuli that trigger responses that are ___. Thus, in this form of conditioning, the organism (Does/Doesn't) control the responses.

conditioned; uncontrolled; doesn't

The reflexive responses of classical conditioning involve ___ behavior.

respondent

In contrast, behavior that is more spontaneous and that is influenced by its consequences is called ___ behavior.

operant

B.F. Skinner used Thorndike's __ __ __ as a starting point in developing a behavioral technology. This principle states that __ behavior is likely to __.

Law of effect; rewarded; recor (repeat)

Skinner designed an apparatus, called the ___ ___ (__ __), to investigate learning in animals.

operant chamber (Skinner box)

The procedure in which a person teaches an animal to perform an intricate behavior by building up to it in small steps is called ___. This method involves reinforcing successive ___ of the desired behavior.

shaping; approximations

In experiments to determine what an animal can perceive, researchers have found that animals are capable of forming ___ and ___ between stimuli. Similar experiments have been conducted with babies, who also can't verbalize their responses.

differences; concepts

A situation, event, or signal that a certain response will be reinforced is a ___ ___.

discriminative stimulus

An event that increases the frequency of a preceding response is a ___.

reinforcer

A stimulus that strengthens a response by presenting a typically pleasurable stimulus after a response is a ___ ___.

positive reinforcement

A stimulus that strengthens a response by reducing or removing an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus is a ___ ___.

negative reinforcement

Reinforcers, such as food and shock, that are related to basic needs and therefore do not rely on learning are called ___ ___. Reinforcers that must be conditioned and therefore derive their power through association are called ___ ___.

primary reinforcers; conditioned reinforcers

Children who are able to delay gratification tend to become (more/less) socially competent and high achieving as they mature

more

Immediate reinforcement (is/isn't) more effective than its alternative, __ reinforcement. This explains in part the difficulty that gamblers have in quitting playing the slot machines.

is; delayed

The procedure involving reinforcement of each and every response is called ___ ___. Under these conditions, learning is ___. When this type of reinforcement is discontinued, extinction is ___.

continuous reinforcement; rapid; rapid

The procedure in which responses are reinforced only part of the the time is called ___ reinforcement. Under these conditions, learning is generally ___ than it is with continuous reinforcement. Behavior reinforced in this manner is (very/not very) resistant to extinction.

partial (intermittent); slower; very

When behavior is reinforced after a set number of responses, a ___-___ schedule is in effect.

fixed-ratio

Three-year-old Yusef knows that if he cries when he want a treat, his mother will sometimes give in. When, as in this case, reinforcement occurs after an unpredictable number of responses, a ___-___ schedule is being used.

variable-ratio

Reinforcement of the first response after a set interval of time defines the ___-___ schedule. An example(s) of this schedule is _________.

fixed-interval; baking, cooking, checking for mail at delivery time

When the first response after varying amounts of time is reinforced, a ___-___ schedule is in effect.

variable-interval

An aversive consequence that decreases the likelihood of the behavior that preceded it is called ___. If an aversive stimulus is administered, it is called ___ ___. If a desirable stimulus is withdrawn, it is called ___ ___.

punishment; positive punishment; negative punishment

Because punished behavior is merely ___, it may reappear. Also, punishment teaches ___, that behavior that is unacceptable in one context may be acceptable in another.

suppressed; children

Punishment can also lead to ___ and a sense of helplessness, as well as to the association of the aversive event with ___.

fear; the person (and place) who administered it

Punishment also often increases ___ and does not guide the individual toward more desirable behavior.

agressiveness

Skinner and other behaviorists resisted the growing belief that expectations, perceptions, and other ___ processes have a valid place in the science of psychology.

cognitive

When a well-learned route in a maze is blocked, rats sometimes choose an alternative route, acting as if they were consulting a ___ ___. During their explorations, the rats may have experienced ___ ___ , learning that becomes apparent only when there is some incentive to demonstrate it.

cognitive map; latent learning

Some learning occurs after little or no interaction with our environment. Our sudden solution to a problem may reflect a flash of ___.

insight

Excessive rewards may undermine ___ ___, which is the desire to perform a behavior for its own sake. The motivation to seek external rewards and avoid punishment is called ___ ___.

intrinistic motivation; extrinistic motivation

Operant conditioning (is/isn't) constrained by an animal's biological predisposition.

is

For instance, with animals it is difficult to use food as a ___ to ___ behaviors that are not naturally associated with ___.

reinforcer; shape; food

Biological constraints predispose organisms to learn associations that are naturally ___. When animals revert to their biologically predisposed patterns, they are exhibiting what is called ___ ___.

adaptive; instinctive drifts

Skinner's views were controversial because he insisted that ___ influences, rather than ___ ___ and ___, shape behavior.

external; internal thoughts; feelings

Skinner also advocated the use of ___ principles to influence people in ways that promote more desirable ___.

operant; behavior

Skinner's critics argued that he ___ people by neglecting their personal ___ and by seeking to ___ their actions.

dehumanized; freedom; control

The use of teaching machines and programmed textbooks was an early application of the operant conditioning procedure of ___ to education. Online ___ systems, software that is ___, and ___-based learning are newer examples of this application of operant principles. Reinforcement principles can also be used to enhance ___ abilities by shaping successive approximations of new skills.

shaping; testing; interactive; web; athletic

In boosting productivity in the workplace, positive reinforcement is (more/less) effective when applied to specific behaviors than when given to reward general merit and when the desired performance is well defined and ___. For such behaviors immediate reinforcement is (more/no more) effective than delayed reinforcement.

more; achievable; more

In using operant conditioning to change your own behavior, you would follow these four steps 1. _____ 2. _______ 3. ______ 4. ______

state your goal; monitor how often you engage in desired behavior; reinforce desired behavior; reduce rewards gradually

A system for recording a physiological response and providing information concerning it is called ___. The instrument used in this system was supposed to provide the individual with a means of ___ a particular physiological response, but it seems to work best on ___ ___.

biofeedback; controlling; tension headaches

Classical conditioning and operant conditioning are both forms of ___ ___.

associative learning

Both types of conditioning involve similar processes of ___, ___, ___ ___, ___, and ___.

acquisition; extinction; spontaneous recovery; generalization; discrimination

Classical and operant conditioning are both subject to the influences of ___ processes and ___ predispositions.

cognitive; biological

Through classical conditioning, an organism associates different ____ that it doesn't ___ and responds ___.

stimuli; control; automatically

Through operant conditioning, an organism associates its ___ ___ with their ___.

operant behavior; consequences

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