Group of cells that associate to perform one or more functions.
4 types of tissues
Epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous.
Continuous sheet of cells covering a body surface or lining a body cavity. Helps protect, absorb, secrete, or sense.
(2 types of epithelial attachment)
Surface exposed and underlying basement membrane ((nonliving fibrous thing). - reword)
General connective tissue characters
Relatively few cells separated by intercellular substance. Fibers scattered throughout a matrix.
Intercellular substance fibers of connective tissue
Collagen fibers, elastic fibers, and reticular fibers.
connective tissue cells
Fibroblasts and macrophages. (Helps join other body tissues, support body and organs, and protect underlying tissue.)
Consists of cells specialized to contract. Each cell is elongated muscle fiber made up of myofibrils (many small contractile units). (Myosin and Actin are two enzymes? that makes up muscle tissue.)
Elongated cells specialized for transmitting impulses.
Support and nourish neurons.
Epithelial tissue classification (shapes)
Squamous (thin, flat), cuboidal (cube), and columnar (column).
Epithelial tissue classification (layers)
Simple, stratified (2 or more layers), and pseudostratified (looks like one layer but is really one layer).
Simple squamous epithelium
Lines blood vessels and air sacs in lungs. Permits exchange of materials by diffusion. (It's easy to pass through so helps in diffusion.)
Simple cuboidal and columnar epithelia
Line passageways, specialized for secretion and absorption. (Kidney tubules... secretion of... and Digestive tube... mucus secretion... as well as nutrient absorption)
Stratified squamous epithelium
Forms outer layer of skin, lines passageways into the body, and provides protection. (lots of layers)
Lines passageway and protects underlying tissue. (usually found in trachea)
Epithelial tissue that releases hormones.
Unicellular exocrine glands that secrete mucus. (made of epithelial tissue)
Secrete product through a duct onto exposed epithelial surface. (has passageway leading from gland) (i.e. trachea to pseudo... gland) ("ducts")
release hormone (directly) into interstitial fluid or blood. ("no ducts")
Made up of (sheet of... with usually layer of pi underneath?) sheet of epithelial tissues with a layer of underlying connective tissue.
Lines cavity that opens to outside of body.
Lines cavity that does not open to outside.
A type of tissue that has cells embedded in intercellular substance. Has collagen, elastic, and reticular fibers (thin branched fibers) which are scattered though a matrix (thin gel of polysach...)
Fibers, a few cells, matrix (gel of sugars).
Loose connective tissue
Consists of fibers running in various directions through a semifluid matrix. Flexible tissue forms a covering for nerves, blood vessels, and muscles.
Dnese connective tissue
Stronger, less flexible than loose connective tissue. Collagen fibers arranged in definite pattern. Forms tendons (connect muscles to bones) and ligaments (connects bones to bones)
(Loose vs dense vs elastic vs reticular)
Loose is flexible and fluid (semi) while dense is less flexible and stronger. Elastic recoil.
Elastic connective tissue
Consists of bundles of parallel elastic fibers. They're found in lung tissue and walls of large arteries. (lung expands and goes back to it's size.)
Reticular connective tissue
Consists of interlacing reticular fibers. Forms support framework for many organs.
(Ret and elas)
Consists of fat cells. Found with loose connective tissue in subcutaneous tissue. (Is connective tissue)
Cartilage and bone
2 types of connective tissue. Form skeletons of vertebrates.
Made of chondrocytes (cells that make em). Found in lacunae (small cavities in hard matrix). Nonvascular (no blood... that's why it doesn't repair itself).
Has osteocytes. Those secrete and maintain bone matrix. Vascular. (Can also be found in lacuna)
(Compact bone and spongy bone.)
Outer bone layer.
Inner bone layer containing marrow.
makes red blood cells.
(Contains osteocytes that makes bones. Unit of compact ??? ... ... Has cytoplasmic extensions that helps communicate...)
Blood and lymph
Also connective tissue. Both have fluid intercellular substance (unlike others). Help parts of an animal communicate with one another.
(helps communicate and transports oxygen throughout tissues.)
(9 connective tissue)
Skeletal, cardiac, smooth.
Striated and under voluntary control. (Striated ???) Elongated, cylindrical fibers with severa nuclei. Skeletal muscles contract, move parts of the body.
Striated, contraptions are involuntary. Elongated, cylindrical fibers branch and fuse. Has one or two central nuclei. Muscle contracts then heart pumps blood. (EX? Unique in that it has Intercalated discs)
No striations, contractions involuntary. Elongated, spindle fibers with a single central nucleus. Smooth muscles moves body organs. (i.e. pushes food through digestive tract.)
Elongated cell. Receives and transmits information.
Junction between neurons.
Receives information and sends it to another.
Receives signals and transmits signals to cell body.
Transmits signals away from cell body to other neurons, muscles, and glands.