nutrition

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Water constitutes for what percent of body weight?

50-70%

The most nutrient-dense calcium food source is?

milk and dairy products.

Trace mineral

A mineral vital to health and is required in the diet in amounts less than or equal to 100 milligrams per day

Bone mineral density?

Total mineral content of bone at a specific bone site divided by the width of the bone at that site

Goiter

An enlargement of the thyroid gland; often caused by insufficient iodide intake

Hemoglobin

The iron-containing part of the red blood cell that carries oxygen to cells and some carbon dioxide away from cells

Electrolytes

Substances that break down into ions in water and, in turn, are able to conduct an electrical current

Major mineral

Mineral required in the diet in amounts greater than 100 milligrams per day

Heme iron

Iron provided from animal tissues

Bone mass

Total mineral substance in a cross section of bone

Myoglobin

Iron-containing compound that binds oxygen in muscle tissue.

In some cultures, pots and pans used in cooking may contribute some what to the diet?

Iron

The mineral that is least likely to be deficient in the American diet is

phosphorus

Which of the following is the best copper source?

Beef liver

The amount of water in each compartment mainly is controlled by what?

Ion concentration

People who eat large amounts of seaweed can consume toxic levels of which trace mineral?

Iodide

Water regulates body temperature through heat loss via

Evaporation

The amount of iron in the body is mostly regulated by

absorption in the small intestine.

Which of the following is true about selenium?

It acts as an antioxidant

In the body, 99 percent of calcium is found in

bones and teeth

The typical American diet contains approximately ___ mgs of sodium.

2,300-4,700

Which of the following is true about the vitamin and mineral intake of athletes?

Most athletes tend to consume ample vitamins and minerals if they meet their kcalorie needs.

Which of the following is true about the protein intake for athletes?

Most athletes eating a variety of foods will easily meet their protein needs.

What is the name of the high energy compound that cells use directly to fuel other chemical reactions?

Adenosine triphosphate

Which of the following is true about protein as an energy source?

The need for protein as an energy source is greater for endurance athletes than those who body build or lift weights.

Bart is a wrestler. His weight is regularly higher than the weight class he would like to wrestle in. What should he do?

Gradually reduce food intake before wrestling season.

Which of the following is a benefit of physical fitness?

. Better sleep habits

A well-tolerated exercise for overweight people is

Bicycling

The difference between aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis is what

the end products of aerobic glucose breakdown are carbon dioxide and water; the end product of anaerobic glucose breakdown is lactic acid

The best way to determine how much fluid must be replaced as a result of a workout is to what?

weigh before and after the workout

For which of the following activities would carbohydrate loading be warranted?

Marathon

What is the term to describe failing health that results from a long-standing dietary intake that either fails to meet or greatly exceeds nutritional needs?

Malnutrition

Failing health that results from a long-standing dietary intake that does not meet nutritional needs is termed

Undernutrition

Which of the following is true about chronic hunger in the world?

The primary cause of hunger is poverty.

The Special Supplemental Feeding Program for Women, Infants, and Children

provides food vouchers and nutrition education to low-income pregnant and lactating women and their young children

The homeless in the United States are at increased risk of undernutrition. Which of the following is true about the homeless?

Many are members of families with children.

The manipulation of nature (plants, animals, and bacteria) to increase production and food yield and the use of living things to manufacture products is called

biotechnology

The major cause of undernutrition in the United States is

political

Impaired development or function that results from an inadequate intake, absorption, or utilization of the nutrients needed for optimal growth, development, and body function is best termed

undernutrition

The program developed in the 1960s to help increase availability of foods to entire families is the

Food stamp program

The consequences of undernutrition are most critical during

Infancy

The way hunger is best addressed in the United States is through

providing more federal, state, and local governmental food subsidy programs and funding.

Which of the following is the best approach to preventing famine in developing nations?

Increase the productivity of rural people by teaching them farming methods so they can build agricultural surpluses to eat and sell

The single most effective health advantage for people wherever they live is

safe and convenient water supply.

Covering cuts or sores on hands and avoiding sneezing when handling food are important to prevent foodborne illness from?

Staphylococcus

Of the following groups, which have the least risk of becoming ill from foodborne illness?

Teens

Common symptoms of foodborne illness include

fever, diarrhea, vomiting

The best way to prevent the foodborne illness E. coli (Escherichia coli) is to

cook meat throughly

Sugar acts as a food preservative by

reducing the amount of free water in food.

Norovirus causes an illness that is commonly misdiagnosed as

The stomach flu

A new food preservation method, aseptic processing, is especially useful for

fruit juices

Treating food with gamma radiation as a preservation method is called

food irradation

Which of the following is true about food irradiation?

Irradiation can slow or limit the growth of insects, microorganisms, and parasites in food.

A common cause of foodborne illness that results from sneezing or coughing over food is

Staphylococcus aureus.

To avoid Salmonella contamination

store chicken at 40° F or below.

Food commonly associated with Salmonella
intoxication are

chicken and eggs.

Which of the following agencies enforces wholesomeness and quality standards for meat?

USDA

Adolescents obtain ______ percent of their energy and nutrient intakes from snacks.

25-33

If a child is to follow a totally vegetarian diet, greater attention should be given to which of the following nutrients?

Protein and vitamin B-12

Absence of breakfast for children is associated with

decreased performance in school and decreased attention span

According to present day growth charts, an infant will double his or her birth weight at about ______ months of age.

6

Iron stores present at birth generally are depleted by ______ to ______ months.

4-6

Susie is 3 years old. At her most recent checkup she was at the 20th percentile for height. This means that

79 of 100 (80%) of girls her age are taller than she is.

Infants need fat because it aids in absorption of several vitamins and also helps the ______________ to develop.

nervous system

Children will more effectively develop the breakfast eating habit if

parents eat breakfast with them.

Which of the following minerals may be low in the diets of adolescent girls?

Iron and calcium

Egg whites should not be fed to children before 1 year of age because

early introduction may result in an allergic reaction

Nursing bottle syndrome results in _______________ in bottle-fed infants.

Dental caries

The adolescent growth spurt

begins earlier in girls than boys

The first solid foods usually introduced into an infant's milk diet are

Iron fortified cereals

Feeding problems may develop during the preschool years partially because of

decreased appetite

Approximately what percentage of obese adolescents become obese adults?

80%

The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that those who choose to drink alcoholic beverages should do so in moderation, defined as the consumption of up to __ drink per day for women and older adults and up to __ drinks per day for men.

1:2

Where is the chief site of alcohol metabolism?

Liver

Loss of vision and hearing can negatively affect nutritional health. The biggest problem is the inability to

Shop for food

Which of the following is the best definition of life expectancy?

The time an average person can expect to live

Aging most likely is the result of

slow cell death

Which of the following is the best definition of life span?

The potential oldest age a person can reach

Bud has trouble with his dentures and problems chewing. Which of the following foods would be best to help meet his nutritional needs?

yogurt

Maude is losing her sense of taste and smell. Which of the following is true about her situation?

She will need to vary her diet and use more herbs and spices.

Use of certain diuretics can increase the need for what nutrient?

Potassium

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