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The extension of a neuron that carries messages away from the cell body

Axon

. The minimum level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse is called

Threshold

. Increasing excitatory signals above the threshold for neural activation will not affect the intensity of an action potential. This indicates that a neuron's reaction is

all or none response

The chemical messengers released into the spatial junctions between neurons are called

Neurotransmitters

. Neurotransmitters are released from vesicles located on knoblike terminals at the end of the

axon

reabsorption of excess neurotransmitter molecules by a sending neuron

reuptake

Degeneration of the myelin sheath results in

multiple sclerosis

. Which is the correct sequence in the transmission of a neural impulse?

dendrite, cell body, axon, synapse

polarized, with mostly positively charged ions outside and negatively charged ions inside

resting state

Dr. Hernandez is studying neurotransmitter abnormalities in depressed patients. She would most likely be working from a ___ perspective

biological

Melissa has just completed running a marathon. She is so elated that she feels little fatigue or discomfort. Her lack of pain is probably the result of the release of

endorphins

Alzheimer's disease is most closely lined to the deterioration of neurons that produce

acetylcholine

Opiate drugs occupy the same receptor sites as

endorphins

Schizophrenia is most closely linked with excess receptor activity for the neurotransmitter

dopamine

An undersupply of serotonin is most closely linked to

depression

A focus on the links between brain activity and behavior is most characteristic of psychologists who work from a ___ perspective

biological

The function of dendrites is to

receive incoming signals from other neurons

The longest part of a motor neuron is likely to be the

axon

The speed at which a neural impulse travels is increased when the axon is encased by a(n)

myelin sheath

. The depolarization of a neural membrane can create a(n)

action potential

A slap on the back is more painful than a pat on the back because a slap triggers

more nuerons to fire and to fire more often

The spatial junctions where impulses are chemically transmitted from one neuron

synapses

Drugs that block the reuptake of serotonin will therby increase the concentration of serotonin molecules in the

synaptic gaps

. Jose has just played a long, bruising football game but feels little fatigue or discomfort. His lack of pain is most likely caused by the relase of

endorphins

Migraines are most closely linked with an

oversupply of glutamate

You are able to pull your hand quickly away from hot water before pain is felt because:

movement of the hand is a reflex that involves intervention of the spinal cord only

The body's natural production of endorphins is liely to be

decreased by heroin use and increased by vigorous exercise

The effect of a drug that mimics a certain neurotransmitter is a

agonist

Botulin poisoning from improperly canned food causes paralysis by clocking the release of

acetylcholine

Messages are transmitted from your spinal cord to muscles in your hands by the ___ nervous system

peripheral

Information travels through axons that are bundled into the cables that we call

nerves

You feel the pain of a sprained ankle when ___ relay(s) messages from your ankle to your central nervous system

sensory neurons

Central nervous system neurons that process information between sensory inputs and motor outputs are called

interneurons

. Some neurons enable you to grasp objects by relaying outgoing messages to the muscles in your arms and hands. These neurons are called

motor neurons

The part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs is called the

automatic nervous system

Which division of the autonomic nervous system arouses the body and mobilizes its energy in stressful situations?

the sympathetic nervous system

The parasympathetic nervous system

stimulates digestion and slows heart beat

. I am a relatively fast-acting chemical messenger that affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal. What am I?

serotonin

Epinephrine and norepinephrine are ___ that are released by the ___ gland.

hormones; adrenal

I am a relatively slow-acting (but long-lasting) chemical messenger carried throughout the body by the bloodstream. What am I?

a hormone

The gland that regulates body growth is the

pituitary

The hypothalamus influences the ___ to send messages to the ___

pituitary; endocrine glands

This pituitary gland hormone enables contractions during childbirth, milk flow during nursing, has been found to promote bonding and social trust.

oxytocin

The endocrine gland responsible for regulating metabolism is ____

thyroid

The pineal gland produces this hormone in the dark and stops production when light hits our eyes.

melatonin

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