a series of events in a narrative that is carefully constructed by the author for artistic purpose; a series of related incidents that build upon one another as the story develops, meant to entertain the reader.
simple narrative account
chronological description of real events; like a police report (purpose is to tell what happened).
plotless short story
modern creation that is pleasurable to read as it describes characters in a situation, but does not employ the development or the resolution of the conflict.
in media ras
structure where the story is opened in the middle of the action and then information about the beginning of the action is supplied to the reader through flashbacks and other devidces for exposition.
story within a story.
background information on the characters, setting, and other events necessary for understanding the story (conflict is introduced).
conflict is developed, suspense is created, and foreshadowing may be used.
anticipation as to the outcome of events.
hinting at later events.
interplay between opposing elements; the plot of the story is produced by and propelled by this; three types of it.
protagonist vs. self
internal struggle (type of conflict).
protagonist vs. others
external struggle with people, society (type of conflict).
protagonist vs. environment
external struggle with nature (type of conflict).
turning point in the plot at which the outcome of the action is determined; often, the protagonist changes or has an opportunity to change at this point; after this point, the conflict begins to come to an end.
point of greatest interest or intensity of the story (subjective).
events following the technical climax in which the outcome is actually worked out; works out the decision that was arrived at during the technical climax.
final event of a story's plot.
represented time and place of events in a literary work.
first function of setting helps understanding:
second function of setting helps create:
third function of setting facilitates:
technique some authors use; using the setting or nature to parallel or mirror the mood of a character or of the story (function of setting).
a fictional personality created by an author.
technique a writer uses to create and reveal characters in a work of fiction.
essential to good characterization.
expository character revelation
telling the reader about a character's personality in a straightforward manner; this method is quicker, more direct, and less attention-getting.
dramatic character revelation
showing the reader what a character is like through descriptions of thought, dialogue, or action; this method is less quick, more indirect, and more attention-getting.
reasons that cause characters to act the way they do.
central character in a work of fiction; the character who sets the action of the plot in motion.
character the reader likes, pities, admires, or feels the most for.
character the reader knows most about (lifestyle, personality, thoughts, feelings).
character who is most involved in, or even begins, the conflict.
character who is followed most closely by the narrator or is the narrator.
character who has a goal at the beginning of the story they want to accomplish.
character who changes the most.
character who parallels an important person in the author's life.
character who is in most of the chapters, scenes, or action.
character who is somehow related to the title, symbols, or theme.
principal opponent of the main character; the person or thing working against the protagonist.
character who is well described and whose thoughts and actions are clearly revealed through the development of the story.
character who is not well developed in a story.
character who grows, learns, or changes in some significant way throughout the story; the character is different at the end of the story than at the beginning.
character who resists change or refuses to change during the story.
character who contrasts in some important way with a more important character; a character who, through contrast, underscores the distinctive characteristics of another.
character whose speech, thoughts, and actions are what the reader has been lead to expect from that particular character.
type of character who is always found "in stock" in a particular type of story.
character created according to widely held, often narrow-minded, ideas; this character has no individuality and is not well-developed.
point of view
physical and psychological relationship between the narrator and the story's characters and events.
teller of the story.
narrator is a character in the story (pov).
third person objective
narrator is not a character in the story and can only report what can be seen and heard.
third person limited omniscient
narrator is not a character in the story and reports not only what can be seen and heard, but also the thoughts and feelings of one of the characters (pov).
third person omniscient
narrator is not a character in the story and reports not only what can be seen and heard, but also the thoughts and feelings of all of the important characters.
controlling idea of a literary work that is a general truth or commentary about life, people, and the world that is brought out in a story; not a statement about the story or plot itself; does not have to be a a moral or lesson.
considered when deciding upon a theme.
first guideline for deciding upon a theme.
general truth about life
second guideline for deciding upon a theme.
throughout entire work
third guideline for deciding upon a theme.
general feeling created by all aspects of the story (plot, character, setting).
describes the reader's state of mind after finishing the story (deals with reader's emotions).
describes the general feeling of the story itself, usually established by the setting's description.
distinctive handling of language by a writer through the purposeful selection of words and sentence structure; indicates tone.
selection of words.
the author or speaker's attitude toward the characters, events, or audience conveyed by details and descriptive words used by the author.
contrast between the way things truly are and the way they appear to be.
discrepancy between the literal meaning of a word and the meaning actually conveyed; saying one thing but meaning another.
form of verbal irony.
discrepancy between knowledge held by a reader and a character's ignorance of that knowledge; when the reader knows something a character doesn't.
discrepancy between the expected outcome of a situation and the actual outcome; twist in the plot; hiding true feelings.