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all test questions/answers

Pablo and Johanna have to do a yearlong study for their biology course. After some discussion, they decide to try comparing their dogs and the diet that they feed them. Each has a dog from the pound, and both dogs are less than one year old. Pablo feeds his shepherd-mix dog a special diet of wet and dry foods from the local vet, while Johanna uses generic dry kibble from the supermarket for her bulldog. They want to see which diet results in bigger, healthier, faster-growing dogs. The independent variable in this study will be ________.

the type of food the dogs receive

The cumulative total and kind of living things on Earth is ________.

its environment

According to Edward O. Wilson, biodiversity ________.

is a nonrenewable resource because extinction is irreversible

Ecology is ________.

the study of organisms and their interactions with each other and with the environment

You have read about the mistakes made on Easter Island. On Tikopia, another small island, the people acted in other ways. When they realized that the pigs they had imported were damaging the environment, they killed them all. They had to have permission from a chief to fish, which prevented overfishing. They practiced contraception. These all indicate that ________.

they truly practiced sustainability

Ecosystem services ________.

economically valuable services provided by natural systems

Geothermal energy, wind and solar radiation are all examples of ________.

renewable environmental factors

Pablo and Johanna have to do a yearlong study for their biology course. After some discussion, they decide to try comparing their dogs and the diet that they feed them. Each has a dog from the pound, and both dogs are less than one year old. Pablo feeds his shepherd-mix dog a special diet of wet and dry foods from the local vet, while Johanna uses generic dry kibble from the supermarket for her bulldog. They want to see which diet results in bigger, healthier, faster-growing dogs. According to the information given, one dependent variable in this study will be ________.

how much the dogs grow

Which of the following is the best description of a sustainable system component?

one which is in balance with the system as a whole

Pesticide use ________.

may be a necessary part of modern technological agriculture with monocultures

How many citizens of Mexico does it take to equal the ecological footprint of the average citizen of the United States?

It takes nearly three Mexican citizens to equal the ecological footprint of the average U.S. citizen.

An experiment ________.

is an activity designed to test the validity of a hypothesis

The process by which several researchers review another researcher's manuscript prior to publication to ensure research quality is referred to as ________.

peer review

The average footprint per person has increased from 2.2 to 2.7 since 2008, and the footprints of many developing nations, such as India and China, have also increased. This means that ________.

our collective lifestyle is even more unsustainable than before

In general, natural resources ________.

should be used efficiently and conserved

Ruben has a new puppy and wants to feed it the best possible food. He decides on an experiment where he will feed it the very best canned food plus a dietary supplement of vitamins recommended by a veterinarian. Which of the following best describes Ruben's project?

This is not an experiment, as there are no controls or replicates.

Which of the following statements is FALSE?

Environmental science only encompasses one type of science.

A paradigm ________.

is a dominant world view in science

The greenhouse effect involves warming of Earth's surface and the ________.

troposphere

Earth's climate ________.

is changing as a result of natural and human processes

In legislation, the precautionary principle states that ________.

lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used to postpone measures to prevent major environmental degradation

The Kyoto Protocol ________.

was intended to reduce emissions of six greenhouse gases to levels lower than those of 1990

Keeling's reports from Mauna Loa demonstrated ________.

an increase in tropospheric CO2 from the 1950s to present

_________ are compounds that contribute to short-term atmospheric cooling.

Sulfate aerosols

Carbon-based fuels from lithospheric (in rock) reservoirs ________.

have been slowly sequestered over many millions of years

Milankovitch cycles ________.

are changes in Earth's rotation and orbit around the sun that may trigger climate variation

Growing rice results in the release of ________ into the atmosphere.

methane

Carbon dioxide is ________.

the main anthropogenic greenhouse gas produced in the United States

Recent research indicates that the variation in solar output _______.

is less than any of the anthropogenic factors affecting climate change

Recent evidence from polar ice core analysis shows that, until now, carbon dioxide levels have never exceeded ________ ppm in the last several hundred thousand years.

300

The largest source of anthropogenic greenhouse gases in the United States is ________, followed by ________.

electricity generation; transportation

Hydrogen fuel cells, biodiesel, and long-term electric batteries are potential solutions to ______.

reducing carbon emissions from cars and trucks

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ________.

is an international panel that reports on how climate change influences biomes and economies

The use of public transportation is ________.

the best option for decreasing the use of fossil fuels for transportation

Hydroelectric power generation ________.

is an alternative to fossil fuels that produces fewer greenhouse gases

Which of the following are market mechanisms for addressing climate change?

cap-and-trade and carbon offsets

The atmosphere around Earth can cause global warming because ________.

molecules in the atmosphere are warmed by radiation from Earth and retain that heat

Rainforest is NOT found on which of these continents?

Europe

How many sites did Ziska (think G11) compare?

3

How many acres are we losing every second in the Rainforest?

1.5

Why does oil stay for longer periods of time in the arctic?

because of low temperatures

Wildlife populations in the Tropics have decreased ________ over the past 48 years.

50%

Which of the following is NOT a layer in a tropical rainforest?

The Soil Layer

Degradation of the Rainforest includes...

Deforestation, Pollution, Agricultural Expansion, Industrial Projects

Which of these was not one of the Five Steps to Saving the Rainforest?

Enforce

What is the name of the weed that in the 19th century had beauty and utility and now is seen as one of one of the most troublesome weeds of our urban habitats?

Ailanthus Tree

What area did the weeds grow best in:

The Baltimore site

An ecological hotspot is a region that is especially rich with biological diversity. Based on the information in this chapter, which of the following areas qualifies as an ecological hotspot?

Costa Rica

Extinction is ________.

a natural process

Unregulated populations tend to increase by ________.

exponential growth

A number of coyotes move into an area and begin to eat a population of small harvest mice. After several years, the harvest mice are much speedier runners than before the coyotes came. This is an example of ________.

directional selection

The carrying capacity is _______.

the maximum population size that a given environment can sustain

Which of the following populations would be most vulnerable to extinction?

a small, endemic population

An example of a density-independent factor would be ________.

cold weather causing the lake to freeze

Which of the following gives the major factors that determine a population's growth rate?

growth rate, death rate, emigration, immigration

Which of the following would be the most effective action for protecting biodiversity?

practice conservation, practice ecotourism
practice preservation

A _____ is defined as the living and nonliving elements around an organism.

habitat

In England, dogs with large, floppy ears called hounds came into existence. These dogs were favored for hunting because of their excellent sense of smell. Which statement most accurately represents the process that produced such dog breeds from the wild-type (feral) dog?

Humans noticed dogs with large, floppy ears and a great sense of smell and wanted more like them. They then bred them with similar dogs over many generations.

In a population of field mice, an example of an adaptive trait that could help with reproduction and/or survival would be ________.

having a bit more fur to withstand cold weather

Which of the following is considered a community?

several interacting species living in the same area

Two organisms live in the same geographical area, are very similar genetically, and can breed with each other successfully. Which of the following statements is correct?

these organisms are member of the same species.

Age pyramids, used to show the age structure of a population, generally ________.

indicate the relative numbers (frequency, or percentage) of individuals in each age class

The human population is approximately ________.

7 billion

Fertility rates decline as _______.

there is an increase in family planning and birth control

Life expectancy in parts of southern Africa ________.

has fallen dramatically since 1990

Helmut Haberl and colleagues have compiled data on ________ as a measure of the human population's growth on earth's natural resources and ecosystem services.

consumption of net primary productivity

As a result of China's one child policy, its age structure in the next 40 to 50 years will look like _______.

an inverted pyramid

According to the IPAT model, technology that enhances our acquisition of minerals, fossil fuels, timber, and ocean fish ________.

increases environmental impact

A population which is not growing will have a TFR of ________.

less than 1.0

Why are diseases such as AIDS, which reduce population density, undermining the ability of developing countries to make the transition to more modern, industrialized societies?

They are causing demographic fatigue

Not surprisingly, the nation with the highest rate of contraceptive use (90%) is ________.

China

Which of the following are the three principal effects of a human population that determine its impact on the environment (the IPAT model)?

population, affluence, technology

Population growth is at the root of many serious environmental problems. From the ancient Babylonians thousands of years ago, to Thomas Malthus hundreds of years ago, to present day neo-Malthusians, humans seem to possess an awareness of Earth's limitations in the face of growing populations. Today, our ability to accurately quantify, monitor, and control population growth is very sophisticated. We can measure growth and make predictions about world growth with mathematical and computer models. Mesopotamian, Mayan, Easter Island, and 1930s U.S. midwest prairie societies all experienced "crashes" because they ________.

abused and overused their natural resources

The maximum population size that a given environment can sustain is the _______.

carrying capacity

America's age structure diagram ________.

reflects an aging population

Studies have shown that family planning programs _______.

have been very effective at lowering TFR and population growth rates

Which of the following statements about Earth's carrying capacity for humans is true?

Humans have a carrying capacity like all other species, although we can develop technology to help us overcome some of the limits that we would otherwise face.

The richest one-fifth of the world's population possess approximately ________ times the income of the poorest one-fifth, and the richest one-fifth use over 86% of the world's resources.

80

How many different species of sharks are there?

360

What is the estimated population of the U.S.?

315,000,000

How many sharks are being killed, by the million, worldwide each year by humans?

100

What percent of water is fit for human consumption?

Less than 1%

What is the current human population growth rate per year?

1.30%

How many more people are there projected to be in 2025?

1 million

How many Nile rivers would it take to sustain the population in 2025?

20

What percent of domestic water is lost before it reaches households?

40%

What is being done in 2012 to monitor the Asian Carp population?

Random electroshock sites and netting

What percent of Minnesota lakes are infested with zebra mussels?

Less than 1%

What are the consequences of human over population?

Land abuse and loss of productivity, Inability to grow enough food leading to hunger and famine, Harm to wild nature including extinction of species

Over the last 300 years, how much of the natural habitat has been converted for agricultural purposes?

45%

How do zebra mussels get their nutrients?

Filter feeding

What is population size?

The number of individual organisms present at a given time.

Up to how many eggs a year can a female zebra mussel produce?

1,000,000

What did the Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1965 accomplish?

Gives priority to family reunification, Gives asylum to refugees, Allowed 170,000 people into the country.

Data indicate that the present rate of freshwater consumption in most developed countries is ________.

unsustainable

Which of the following is a storage for the hydrologic cycle?

pond

The "blue-baby" syndrome that suffocates infants is a consequence of excess ________ in the water supply.

nitrates

You want to maintain a healthy pond at your school site. Last year another pond became eutrophic; to avoid that, you want to ________.

avoid increasing phosphorus runoff into the limnetic zone

The ______________ is the world's largest known aquifer.

Ogallala aquifer

The pair of mallard ducks in the figure, eat floating plants such as duckweed, seeds of shoreline plants, and very small organisms at or near the surface. They would be most affected by any change to the ________.

littoral or limnetic zones

An artesian aquifer occurs when ________.

a water���bearing layer is trapped between two layers that are less permeable

Why was the irrigation of Soviet cotton farming operations a problem?

It drained the Aral Sea and increased the salt content of soils.

The fish in the lake at the local park are dying. A professor from the local college comes to investigate, and first she measures the dissolved oxygen. She wants to check the ________.

possibility of eutrophication

Frog eggs are usually attached to vegetation or rocks near the surface of a pond. Tadpoles can use essentially all areas of a shallow pond, or the top few feet of a deeper pond or lake. Adult frogs can live on land or in the water. A frog's life would be least likely to be disrupted by a change in the ________.

the benthic zone

Sinkholes result from ________.

overconsumption of water from aquifers weakening the substrate

Which of the following is one of the major pollutants of groundwater?

fertilizers from agricultural fields

Only about 2.5% of all the water on our planet is freshwater. However, ________.

most of this is far from where humans live

A _________ is any obstruction placed in a river or stream to block flow.

dam

A recent study has revealed that chlorinated hydrocarbons, gasoline and other volatile organic compounds (VOC's) have become significant pollutants in ________ from ________.

ground water / leaking storage tanks

Recent research that analyzed the content of commercial bottled water indicates that ________.

bottled water is no safer or purer than most samples of tap water

Which of the following is a flow in the hydrologic cycle?

percolation

On a September day in 1999, folks began to notice that Lake Jackson in the panhandle region of northern Florida was shrinking. Within a few days, it was almost gone. A sinkhole had opened beneath the lake and drained it, along with all of the fish and alligators. As aquifers lose water, their substrates can become weaker and less capable of supporting overlying strata and any human structures built upon them. In such cases, the land surface above may subside. Sometimes subsidence can occur locally and suddenly, in the form of sinkholes, areas where the ground gives way with little warning. Once the ground subsides, soil becomes compacted, losing the porosity that enabled it to hold water. Recharging a depleted aquifer may therefore become more difficult. Sinkholes can occur when ________.

excessive water use lowers a water table and weakens the substrate

Dam removal in this country ________.

will probably continue because the environmental impacts of dams are reviewed periodically

Tree-dominated ecosystems in tropical and subtropical latitudes that consists of gently sloping sandy and silty coastal areas are ________________.

mangrove forests

Salt marshes ________.

occur mostly in temperate areas

Upwelling ________.

of ocean water results in areas of high primary productivity at the ocean surface

El Nino and La Nina ________.

produce changes of opposite direction in global temperature and precipitation patterns

What are groundfish?

various species that live in benthic habitats, such as scallops

Kelp are ________.

large algae that protect shorelines from erosion, and supply shelter and food for invertebrates and fish

Hypoxia and eutrophication in Chesapeake Bay may in part be attributed to ________.

harvesting of oysters that previously would have filtered nutrients

Ocean zone where water is dense and sluggish and not affected by winds, sunlight, and daily temperature fluctuations is the __________________.

deep zone

___________ is a fishing technique for capturing groundfish.

Bottom trawling

Downwelling ________.

occurs in areas where surface currents converge, or flow toward each other

Which of the following is true?

Polar areas lack a pycnocline.

Water in the surface zone of the ocean is, for the most part ________.

well mixed

Diets that incorporate seafood can be healthy for us and kind to the environment. However, all seafood is not comparable, so choice is important. Mollusks such as oysters, mussels, and scallops are good choices if they are grown suspended in water, because dredging damages seafloors. On fish farms, this involves growing organisms on nets, trays, or racks. Because mollusks are filter feeders, farmed mollusks can actually improve water quality. Although shrimp are also filter feeders, shrimp farms, especially in Southeast Asia, are often built in coastal areas where mangroves are destroyed to make room for farms. As long as excessive quantities of grain or wild fish are not used for feed, aquaculture can be a very good alternative to open ocean fishing because it can reduce by���catch, the pressure on wild stocks, and the fossil fuel use required at sea. Exceptions are farms that raise transgenic salmon, which often spread disease, or where the farmed fish become oversized and outcompete the native fish. These salmon consume massive quantities of fish feed, so better fish choices are farm���raised talapia, striped bass, and sturgeon. In the wild, Pacific halibut, salmon, sablefish, and sardines are good choices because they are fished selectively. Wild grouper, shark, swordfish, tuna, and orange roughy must be consumed cautiously because water they inhabit usually contains high levels of mercury, PCBs, dioxins, or pesticides, which can biomagnify in food webs and bioaccumulate in fish tissues. Wild Chilean sea bass, Atlantic cod, and Atlantic halibut should be avoided because their populations have been overfished. Orange roughy have been overfished, reproduce slowly, and are fished with bottom���trawlers that frequently damage bottom habitat. The main environmental problem caused by harvesting bottom-dwelling mollusks is ________.

habitat destruction

Currently, the greatest ecological crisis facing marine food webs is ________.

over harvesting

Diets that incorporate seafood can be healthy for us and kind to the environment. However, all seafood is not comparable, so choice is important. Mollusks such as oysters, mussels, and scallops are good choices if they are grown suspended in water, because dredging damages seafloors. On fish farms, this involves growing organisms on nets, trays, or racks. Because mollusks are filter feeders, farmed mollusks can actually improve water quality. Although shrimp are also filter feeders, shrimp farms, especially in Southeast Asia, are often built in coastal areas where mangroves are destroyed to make room for farms. As long as excessive quantities of grain or wild fish are not used for feed, aquaculture can be a very good alternative to open ocean fishing because it can reduce by���catch, the pressure on wild stocks, and the fossil fuel use required at sea. Exceptions are farms that raise transgenic salmon, which often spread disease, or where the farmed fish become oversized and outcompete the native fish. These salmon consume massive quantities of fish feed, so better fish choices are farm���raised talapia, striped bass, and sturgeon. In the wild, Pacific halibut, salmon, sablefish, and sardines are good choices because they are fished selectively. Wild grouper, shark, swordfish, tuna, and orange roughy must be consumed cautiously because water they inhabit usually contains high levels of mercury, PCBs, dioxins, or pesticides, which can biomagnify in food webs and bioaccumulate in fish tissues. Wild Chilean sea bass, Atlantic cod, and Atlantic halibut should be avoided because their populations have been overfished. Orange roughy have been overfished, reproduce slowly, and are fished with bottom���trawlers that frequently damage bottom habitat. Why are marine reserves ecologically better than fish farms?

They restore damaged habitats and allow overfished species to reproduce and spread.

Diets that incorporate seafood can be healthy for us and kind to the environment. However, all seafood is not comparable, so choice is important. Mollusks such as oysters, mussels, and scallops are good choices if they are grown suspended in water, because dredging damages seafloors. On fish farms, this involves growing organisms on nets, trays, or racks. Because mollusks are filter feeders, farmed mollusks can actually improve water quality. Although shrimp are also filter feeders, shrimp farms, especially in Southeast Asia, are often built in coastal areas where mangroves are destroyed to make room for farms. As long as excessive quantities of grain or wild fish are not used for feed, aquaculture can be a very good alternative to open ocean fishing because it can reduce by���catch, the pressure on wild stocks, and the fossil fuel use required at sea. Exceptions are farms that raise transgenic salmon, which often spread disease, or where the farmed fish become oversized and outcompete the native fish. These salmon consume massive quantities of fish feed, so better fish choices are farm���raised talapia, striped bass, and sturgeon. In the wild, Pacific halibut, salmon, sablefish, and sardines are good choices because they are fished selectively. Wild grouper, shark, swordfish, tuna, and orange roughy must be consumed cautiously because water they inhabit usually contains high levels of mercury, PCBs, dioxins, or pesticides, which can biomagnify in food webs and bioaccumulate in fish tissues. Wild Chilean sea bass, Atlantic cod, and Atlantic halibut should be avoided because their populations have been overfished. Orange roughy have been overfished, reproduce slowly, and are fished with bottom���trawlers that frequently damage bottom habitat. Which of the following should be avoided because of PCB contamination?

tuna

Hydrothermal vents ________.

provide nutrients to symbiotic bacteria that support ecosystems at the ocean floor

Which of the following is a problem associated with driftnet fishing?

bycatch (collateral damage)

Sea otters act as keystone species in the ________.

kelp forests

What percentage of the Earth's water is natural freshwater?

2.50%

Through power shortfalls, masses of people could experience prolonged __________.

Brown Outs

What do we need to be able to see the water weather plan more clearly?

Build in steps

What is the harm with zebra mussels?

Harms boating and industry, harms native species, harms water recreation

How many gallons of water did Adena Springs Ranch propose to use?

13 million / day

What can we do to help save the coral reefs?

recycle, carpool, reduce overfishing

How many lakes are affected by zebra mussels?

649

What is the biggest contributor to oil pollution?

small non-point sources

What are the 3 layers of the ocean?

Photic zone, Pelagic, Benthic

What is on type of marine pollution

Oil

What was John Mathews take on dams around the world?

Flawed

The reefs are home to what percentage of marine fish?

25%

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