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Of the following commonly eaten foods, which makes the greatest contribution to riboflavin intake?

milk

What vitamin deficiency disease appeared in people who had subsisted on a diet high in corn and low in protein?

Pellagra

General characteristics of the water-soluble vitamins include all of the following except

they must be consumed daily.

What is meant by the bioavailability of a vitamin in food?

The amount absorbed and subsequently used by the body

Which of the following is a property of vitamin B12?

It is efficiently recycled by the body

Why are vegetarians at risk of developing a vitamin B12 deficiency?

Vegetarian diets provide insufficient amounts of the vitamin

Which of the following is a type of neural tube defect?

Spina bifida

Which of the following characteristics is shared by vitamins B6, B12, C and folate?

Consumption prevents anemia

Which of the following food groups ordinarily contains the highest amount of riboflavin when expressed per kcalorie?

Vegetables

of the following foods, which would be the only source of vitamin B12?

hotdogs

Which of the following provides the most thiamin per serving size?

ham

On a per-kcalorie basis, which of the following foods is richest in vitamin B6?

Vegetables

What is ariboflavonosis?

The vitamin B2 deficiency disease

Which of the following describes the basic function of a coenzyme?

Attaches to an enzyme and allows a chemical reaction to take place

Which of the following is indicative of a dietary deficiency of riboflavin?

Inflamed mouth membranes

Which of the following characteristics is shared by vitamin B12 and folate?

Both are required for nucleic acid synthesis

Beriberi results from a deficiency of

thiamin.

The appearance of vitamin B12 deficiency symptoms may be delayed due to high intake of supplements of

folate.

A protein that binds with biotin (thus inhibiting absorption) is found in which food?

Raw egg whites

A low-protein diet in which corn is a principal food has been found to cause a deficiency of what vitamin?

Niacin

A person with a disorder that limits absorption of bile is at increased risk for deficiency of

folate.

The chief symptoms of early vitamin B6 deficiency include

confusion and depression.

Pernicious anemia results from a deficiency of

vitamin B12.

Of the following, which is the richest food source of thiamin?

Soy milk

What is a precursor?

A substance that is used to synthesize another compound

Which of the following symptoms is indicative of a deficiency of vitamin C?

Subcutaneous pinpoint hemorrhages

What type of container is best for protecting the riboflavin content of milk?

Cardboard

The chief symptoms of early vitamin B6 deficiency include

confusion and depression.

Of the following commonly eaten foods, which makes the greatest contribution to riboflavin intake?

Milk

People with the condition known as iron overload may be adversely affected from taking supplements of

ascorbic acid

Folate deficiency has been reported in infants fed

goat's milk.

Which of the following is an essential nutrient for human beings?

folate

Which of the following vitamins is known to sustain substantial losses during processing of food?

Pantothenic acid

Among the following, which would be the best source of niacin equivalents?

chicken

Why might vitamin C supplements be beneficial in treating the common cold?

They deactivate histamine

Beriberi results from a deficiency of

thiamin.

Which of the following is a general function of vitamin C?

Antioxidant agent

Which of the following is known to significantly affect the body's folate status?

Some anticancer drugs

Which of the following is a property of vitamin B12?

It is efficiently recycled by the body

The appearance of vitamin B12 deficiency symptoms may be delayed due to high intake of supplements of

folate.

Which of the following foods is highest in folate?

Green, leafy vegetables

Of the following, which is the richest food source of thiamin?

Soy milk

Which of the following characteristics is shared by vitamins B6, B12, C and folate?

Consumption prevents anemia

Pteroylglutamic acid is known as

folate.

What is a free radical?

A molecule with at least one unpaired electron

Among the following compounds that serve as coenzymes in metabolism, which is considered a vitamin for human beings?

Biotin

which of the following is required for the absorption of dietary vitamin B12?

Intrinsic factor

What is a chief function of the B vitamins?

Coenzyme participation

Among all the vitamins, which is believed to be most vulnerable to interactions with drugs?

folate

A deficiency of what vitamin produces a characteristic cracking and redness at the corners of the mouth?

Riboflavin

Because of adverse interactions with other vitamins, a safe daily folate intake is up to

1,000 mg.

The Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome may be treated with supplements of

thiamin.

Which of the following is frequently affected by deficiencies of the B vitamins?

Tongue

What is meant by the bioavailability of a vitamin in food?

The amount absorbed and subsequently used by the body

What vitamin is involved mainly with the replacement of red blood cells and digestive tract cells?

Folate

A person who shuns dairy and spends most of her time indoors would likely benefit from a supplement of

vitamin D.

Moderate intakes of which of the following would provide sufficient amounts of vitamin C?

Potatoes

which of the following is the coenzyme form of thiamin?

Thiamin pyrophosphate

Which of the following vitamins is stored primarily in muscle tissue?

Vitamin B6

Which of the following is a type of neural tube defect?

Spina bifida

The protein that requires ascorbic acid for its formation is

collagen.

Riboflavin needs are more difficult to meet when the diet is low in

dairy foods.

Which of the following is an early sign of vitamin C deficiency?

Bleeding gums

Why are vegetarians at risk of developing a vitamin B12 deficiency?

Vegetarian diets provide insufficient amounts of the vitamin

Which of the following food groups is a rich source of vitamin C?

Fruit group

Research has shown that the risk for neural tube defects is lowered by taking supplements of

folate.

Riboflavin is most easily destroyed when exposed to

ultraviolet light.

Which of the following describes the basic function of a coenzyme?

Attaches to an enzyme and allows a chemical reaction to take place

The vitamin deficiency disease pellagra means

"rough skin."

Which of the following substances is known to adversely affect folate utilization?

Regular use of antacids

Which of the following contains the highest concentration of thiamin in muscle tissue?

Pig

Which of the following foods provides ample amounts of vitamin C?

Broccoli

What is the most likely reason for the development of a vitamin B12 deficiency?

Inadequate absorption

Which of the following is a characteristic of thiamin nutrition?

t is an integral part of the nerve cell membrane

A low-protein diet in which corn is a principal food has been found to cause a deficiency of what vitamin?

Niacin

Which of the following characteristics is shared by vitamin B12 and folate?

Both are required for nucleic acid synthesis

Which of the following is a characteristic of vitamin B12?

It is inactivated when the food is heated in a microwave

Approximately what percentage of dietary folate is bioavailable?

50

Which of the following is a common treatment for pernicious anemia caused by inadequate absorption?

Injection of cobalamin

General characteristics of the water-soluble vitamins include all of the following except

they must be consumed daily.

Physiological stresses such as blood loss, burns, measles, and cancer are known particularly to increase the risk of deficiency for

folate.

Which of the following is a feature of vitamins?

The quantities present in foods are measured in micrograms or milligrams

A person with a disorder that limits absorption of bile is at increased risk for deficiency of

folate

Which of the following is indicative of a dietary deficiency of riboflavin?

Inflamed mouth membranes

When taken in large doses, which of the following vitamins is associated with liver injury and peptic ulcers?

Niacin

What is the primary excretory route for the water-soluble vitamins?

Kidney

Biotin can be synthesized by

intestinal bacteria.

How does the method of cooking affect thiamin stability?

Microwaving the food conserves much of the thiamin

When thiamin is consumed in excess of needs, how does the body treat the excess?

Excreted primarily in the urine

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