Psychology: Test 3

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All forms of language are:

based on some agreed-upon set of rules

When someone says, "It's a matter of semantics," they are referring to the ____ of a sentence.

Meaning

A "coo" is best described as a ___sound.

vowel-like

Most infants begin cooing about 6-8 ____ after birth.

weeks

Six-month-old Emir is sitting in his car seat and repeatedly saying "na na nan a na." Emir is best described as

babbling

Which statement is true?

At 5 months of age, deaf and hearing children from all cultures make similar sounds

In most 1 year-olds,

language comprehension typically precedes language production.

Which is the typical order of linguistic attainment (from earliest to latest)?

Coo, then babble, then word, then holophrase

In a holophrase,

a single word conveys the meaning of an entire sentence

Over extension occurs when a person

uses the same word to describe too wide a range of objects

Which is the best example of telegraphic speech?

"want bottle"

The increasing "tip-of-the-tongue" experience in older age is most likely the result of the

inability to retrieve a word in stored memor

Tyler argues that language is best explained in terms of a baby imitating the speech of parents and being reinforced by parents for speaking words properly. These arguments best fit with the ___ perspective on language acquisition.

Learning

Which type of theorist would be most likely to view language development as a combination of nature and nurture factors?

Interactionist

When her toddler holds her cup up and says, "Milk," her mother says, "You're ready for more milk." The mother's response is best described as an example of

expansion

Which group seems to gain the most benefit from being enrolled in quality preschool programs?

Disadvantaged children

_______ is defined as an organized combination of an individual's unique attributes, motives, values, and behaviors.

Personality

An overall evaluation of your own self-worth best defines you

Self-esteem

In comparing the views of Freud and Erikson with regard to personality development, it is most accurate to say that Erikson placed more emphasis on _____ than did Freud.

Social influences

The psychometric approach to personality has led researchers to believe that personality

is best thought of in terms of a set of dispositional traits

Which is NOT one of the Big Five traits?

Inferiority

Which word can be used as a mnemonic cue for recalling the Big Five traits that is based on the first letter in each trait?

OCEAN

The Big Five Traits

are genetically influenced

The social learning perspective assumes that

personality development is highly influenced by environmental experience

Social learning theorists argue that

personality can change with age if individuals experience different environments

Nine-month old Elmer sees a rabbit in the yard. He then looks at his father, Fudd, ad tries to direct Fudd's focus toward the bunny by pointing at the hopping rabbit. Elmer's behavior illustrates the process of ___ as an indicator of an emerging self-awareness.

joint attention

When a baby looks in a mirror and remarks, "Hey, that's me!" she is demonstrating

self-recognition

Which of the following utterances clearly demonstrates that an infant has developed a categorical sense of self?

"I big girl"

Three-month-old Gerber is eating strained peas of the very first time. Despite the fact that this is a new experience, Gerber appears quite happy with his meal. With regard to temperament, Gerber is best classified as

Easy

Infant Marisa cries and throws tantrums when she doesn't get her way. Moreover, she becomes very upset when her parents attempt to change her diaper. With regard to temperament, Marisa is best classified as

Difficult

One-year-old Barker has some trouble dealing with new situations. In addition, he tends to be relatively inactive and moody. With regard to temperament, Barker is best classified as

Slow-to-warm-up

While Ginger has always thought of herself as the best dancer in the world, she has just begun to notice that some of the other kids in her class are better than she. This realization indicates that Ginger has begun to engage in

social comparison

Marhs and Kit-Tai Hua's 2003 study on the "big-fish-little-pond effect" found that a student's academic self-concept is less positive when students are

in a school with a lot of high achievers

The _____ identity status would best be described as "I haven't really thought about it, but my parents think..."

Foreclosure

In the hypothetical country of Whoville, only females are allowed to cook roast beast. This best exemplifies a _____role difference.

Gender

Which is the best example of a communality role in American society??

Caring for a sick child

Which is the best example of an agency aspect of gender?

Dominance

The social-role hypothesis predicts that

gender differences vary from culture to culture depending on the roles men and women hold in each society

If asked to list the top occupations held by women in the U.S., you would NOT include

Doctor

The initial awareness that you are either a boy or a girl is referred to as

gender identity

Which best illustrates the concept of gender segregation?

A "girls only" scout troop

Research on reinforcement of sex-appropriate behavior indicated that

fathers are more likely than mothers to discourage youngsters for playing with gender inappropriate toys

Audrey grows up in a family in which her father provides at-home daycare and her mother is a construction worker. A social learning theorist would be most likely to explain Audrey's unusual attitudes (i.e. she loves trucks and hates dolls) in terms of

observational learning

According to Kohlberg;s cognitive-developmental theory of gender typing, gender-role development

depends on stage-like changes in thinking

For Kohlberg, the outcome of the 3 childhood stages of gender development is the acquisition of gender

constancy

According to cognitive-developmental theory, the initial phase of gender identity is established around age 2 or 3, when a child

recognizes that they are male or female

Whose statement indicates an understanding of gender stability?

Tom, who says, "Once a boy always a boy"

When he became a grandfather, Lorne retained his masculine traits but also became more nurturing and learned to cook. This best exemplifies the concept of

Androgyny shift

what is self-esteem, and how does it change across the lifespan? What factors influence self-esteem in positive or negative directions?

write your own answer

erikson's 8 psychosocial stages and the basic conflict within each stage

see book

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