a description of the relation between an individual's emotional needs and the social environment around him or her.
Trust vs. Mistrust
Caregivers help (trust) or they don't (mistrust). First stage of Erikson's developmental theory—infancy.
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
Children's mistakes in learning to care for self are either considered normal or they are excessively punished. Second stage of Erikson's developmental theory—toddler.
Initiative vs. Guilt
Explorations are either supported by caregivers or thwarted. Third stage of Erikson's developmental theory—preschooler.
Industry vs. Inferiority
Learns how to work and succeed academically or else does not learn these skills. Fourth stage of Erikson's developmental theory—elementary school.
Identity vs. Confusion
Develops own identity separate from family or else fails to do this. Fifth stage of Erikson's developmental theory—adolescence.
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Chooses to be in significant relationships or else may not be emotionally able to sustain intimate relationships. Sixth stage of Erikson's developmental theory—young adulthood.
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Feels like one's work is a contribution or not. Seventh stage of Erikson's developmental theory—middle adulthood.
Integrity vs. Despair
Feels as if life has been well-lived—or not. Eighth stage of Erikson's developmental theory—old age.