Traits, Genetics, Asexual and Sexual Reproduction

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Asexual Reproduction

type of reproduction in which one parent organism produces offspring without meiosis and fertilization (without mate)

Why is the offspring genetically identical to the parent? (Asexual Reproduction)

Since the offspring gets all its DNA from one parent

What are the two types of reproduction?

sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction

What are types of Asexual Reproduction?

Fission
Mitotic Cell Division
Budding
Animal Regeneration
Vegetative Reproduction
Cloning

Fission

Forms two genetically identical cells
- DNA molecule is copied
- copy attaches to cell membrane
- cell grow larger pulling the two copies of DNA apart
- pinches inward in the middle
- two new offspring are formed

Mitotic Cell Division

- nucleus is divided by mitosis
- Cytoplasm and it contents divide by cytokinesis and form two new cells

Budding

- grows out of the side of a parent
- falls off when it is fully grown or it can stay and create a colony

Animal Regeneration

animal's ability to regrow lost body parts

Vegetative Reproduction

Type of reproduction in which new plants grow from vegetative parts such as roots, stems, and leaves

Cloning

Plant Cloning(Tissue Culture), Animal Cloning , The process of creating a genetic duplicate of an individual organism through asexual reproduction

Advantages of Asexual Reproduction

•Enables organisms to reproduce without a mate
•Searching for a mate takes time and energy
•Enables some organisms to rapidly reproduce a large number of offspring
•Enables one plant to spread and colonize an area in a short period of time.
•Enables organisms to reproduce without a mate
•Searching for a mate takes time and energy
•Enables some organisms to rapidly reproduce a large number of offspring
•Enables one plant to spread and colonize an area in a short period of time.

Disadvantages of Asexual Reproduction

•Produces offspring that are genetically identical to their parent, which causes in little genetic variation within a population
•An organism has a harmful mutation in its cell, which can affect the offspring ability to survive.

Sexual Reproduction

is a type of reproduction in which the genetic materials from two different cells combine, producing an offspring.

Fertilization

an egg cell and sperm cell combine to create a zygote.

Diploid Cells

have pairs of chromosomes

Haploid Cells

have one pair of chromosomes from each pair

Homologous Chromosomes

Pairs of chromosomes that have genes for the same traits

Meiosis

one diploid cell divides and form 4 new haploid sex cells

Mitotic Phase

During mitosis and cell division, a body cell and its nucleus divide once and produce two identical cells.

Advantages of Sexual Reproduction

•Genetic variation occurs in all organisms that reproduce sexually.
•Due to the genetic variation, individuals within a population have slight differences.
•Genetic variation may enable one plant to be more disease resistant than another within the same species.

Disadvantages of Sexual Reproduction

Organisms have to grow and develop until they are mature enough to produce sex cells

Cell Cycle

cycle of growth, development, and division

What are the two types of phases in the cell cycle and what happens in the phases?

Interphase: growth of cells
Mitotic Phase: Splitting and Copies of DNA

Interphase

- rapid growth and replication of organelles (G1)
- copying of DNA (S)
- preparation for cell division (G2)

What are the phases of mitotic phase?

Mitosis and Cytokinesis

Mitosis

Prophase: DNA is copied, Nucleus Membrane breaks
Metaphase: Chromosomes line up in a straight line
Anaphase: Sister Chromatids pull apart from each other
Telophase: Nuclear Membrane is created, Spindle Fibers break down, Two new nuclei form

Cytokinesis

Cytoplasm divides and forms two new daughter cells

Results of Cell Division

- reproduction in organisms
- growth in multicellular organisms
- replacement in worn out or damaged cells
- repair of damaged tissues

Traits

•characteristic that distinguishes one organism from another organism.

Genes

regions of DNA within each chromosome

Phenotype

describes observable traits of an organism (black)
CAN CHANGE

Genotype

describes an organism complete set of genes (GG)
NEVER CHANGES

Mutation

can cause a change in DNA

Why is meiosis important?

Meiosis is important because it helps keep the number of chromosomes in species constant.

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