Which of the following would be an effective treatment for bacterial meningitis?
Which of the following characteristics are shared by the causative agents of bacterial meningitis?
They are all prevented through the Hib vaccine.
They are all diplococci.
They're all Gram-negative
None of the above is correct
Which population is most likely to develop bacterial meningitis?
infants and young children
Which of the following statements concerning the blood-brain barrier is FALSE?
Most antibiotics cannot cross the blood-brain barrier.
Substances that are lipid-soluble can cross the blood-brain barrier readily.
Inflammation can alter the blood-brain barrier, increasing the likelihood that a substance can cross.
Penicillin is useless against infections of the brain because it is completely incapable of crossing the barrier.
Which of the following statements regarding African trypanosomiasis is true?
T.b. rhodesiense not only causes disease, but also severely affects food production because it infects domestic animals, which could otherwise be used for agriculture.
If a person in the United States is exposed to rabies, which animal is the most likely culprit?
Which of the following is an accurate description of Cryptococcus neoformans?
It is a fungus found in dried pigeon droppings. When inhaled, it is especially dangerous to immunocompromised individuals and can cause fatal meningitis.
Which of the following is an accurate statement concerning the Sabin and Salk vaccines?
The Sabin vaccine is slightly more dangerous because it is made from live, attenuated virus, and the virus occasionally reverts back to its pathogenic form.
Why should children younger than 1 year of age NOT be fed honey?
They may contract botulism.
Which of the following microbes has NOT been associated with bacterial meningitis?
Which statement regarding arboviral encephalitis is FALSE?
The most effective preventive measure for arboviral infections is vaccination.
Postexposure treatment for rabies includes vaccination and injection of immunoglobulin; these are generally successful if treatment is obtained immediately following exposure. Why does post-exposure vaccination work?
The infection progresses so slowly that there is time for post-exposure vaccination to generate immunity.
Which of the following is NOT characteristic of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)?
Relief can be obtained through exercise.
All of the following organisms cause meningitis EXCEPT
The most common route of central nervous system invasion by pathogens is through
the circulatory system.
CSF contains high levels of complement and circulating antibodies to prevent infection of the brain and spinal cord.
Bacterial encephalitis and meningitis are difficult to treat because
many antibiotics cannot penetrate the bloodbrain barrier.
Which of the following statements about Neisseria meningitisis FALSE?
It is a gram-positive anaerobe.
Which of the following pairs is mismatched?
Naegleria fowleri causes amoebic encephalitis
Haemophilus influenzae virulence due to capsule
Neisseria meningitidis produces deadly endotoxins
Mycobacterium leprae cultured in armadillos
Cryptococcus neoformans acid-fast rod
All of the following organisms are transmitted via the respiratory route EXCEPT
None of the answers is correce; all of these organisms are transmitted by the respiratory route
Which of the following statements about rabies is FALSE?
Average incubation period is 30 to 50 days after initial infection.
Diagnosis is based on immunofluorescent techniques.
Hydrophobia is associated with the disease.
It is caused by Lyssavirus.
Most infections in the U.S. are the result of bites from infected dogs.
The symptoms of tetanus are due to
The prodromal symptom(s) of bacterial meningitis is/are
mild cold symptoms.
All of the following are associated with botulism outbreaks EXCEPT
type E toxin is associated with seafood.
type B toxin is most virulent.
endospores of C. botulinum have been recovered from honey.
antibodies are not an effective method of treatment.
Alaskan natives have the highest rate of botulism.
A 30-year-old woman was hospitalized after she experienced convulsions. On examination, she was alert and oriented and complained of a fever, headache, and stiff neck. Which of the following is most likely to provide rapid identification of the cause of her symptoms?
Gram stain of cerebrospinal fluid
A physician diagnoses a patient with lepromatous Hansens disease. All of the following pertain to the patient EXCEPT
disfiguring nodules form all over the body.
the disease has progressed from the tuberculoid stage.
infection probably occurred as a result of prolonged contact with another infected individual.
a skin biopsy will be taken to aid diagnosis.
treatment will include injections of penicillin.
Which of the following is treated with antibiotics?
Microscopic examination of cerebrospinal fluid reveals gram-positive rods. What is the organism?
On June 30, a 47-year-old man was hospitalized with dizziness, blurred vision, slurred speech, difficulty swallowing, and nausea. Examination revealed facial paralysis. The patient had partially healed superficial knee wounds incurred while laying cement. He reported eating home-canned green beans and stew containing roast beef and potatoes 24 hours before onset of symptoms. The patient should be treated with
supportive care, including respiratory assistance.
Vaccination is available for all the following except
Patients with leprosy usually die from complications such as
A one-year-old boy was listless, irritable, and sleepy. Capsulated Gram-negative rods were cultured from his cerebrospinal fluid. His symptoms were caused by
Which of the following pairs is mismatched?
rabies virus - destroys cells of the CNS
tetanus - releases potent neurotoxin
leprosy deformation of nose and hands can occur
poliomyelitis - multiplication of virus occurs in throat and small intestine
botulism - stimulates transmission of nerve impulse
All of the following microorganisms can directly cause meningitis EXCEPT
All of the following are true of M. leprae except
it survives ingestion by macrophages.
it invades cells of the PNS.
it can be cultured in armadillos.
it grows best at temperatures below 37° C.
it has a very short generation time of approximately twelve hours.
Which of the following statements about leprosy is FALSE?
Patients with leprosy must be isolated.
All of the following diseases are caused by arbovirus EXCEPT
West Nile encephalitis.
None of ht answers is correct; all of these diseases are caused by arbovirus.
eastern equine encephalitis.
St. Louis encephalitis.
primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM).
A 30-year-old woman was hospitalized after she experienced convulsions. On examination, she was alert and oriented and complained of a fever, headache, and stiff neck. Any of the following organisms could be responsible for her symptoms EXCEPT
Any of these organisms could be the causative agent
elimination of the mosquito population.
Initial treatment for tetanus in an unimmunized person with a puncture wound is
tetanus immune globulin.
Initial treatment for tetanus in a fully immunized person with a puncture wound is
A pathologist detects Negri bodies while examining a brain section taken at autopsy. What was the cause of death?
Encephalitis is more common in the summer months because
mosquito populations increase.
On October 5, a pet store sold a kitten that subsequently died. On October 22, rabies was diagnosed in the kitten. Between September 19 and October 23, the pet store had sold 34 kittens. Approximately 1000 people responded to health care providers following local media alerts. These people were given
Which one of the following causes the most severe illness in humans, with a mortality rate of 30 percent?
eastern equine encephalitis
Diagnosis of rabies is confirmed by
direct fluorescent-antibody test.
Arboviruses cause ________ and are transmitted by ________.
An eight-year-old girl in rural Wisconsin has chills, headache, and fever and reports having been bitten by mosquitoes. How would you confirm your diagnosis?
ELISA test for IgM antibodies
Each of the following is caused by prions EXCEPT
bovine spongiform encephalopathy.
Which of the following pairs is mismatched?
meningococcal meningitis - respiratory route
rabies - direct contact
leprosy - direct contact
listeriosis - ingestion
poliomyelitis - respiratory route
All of the following are true of poliomyelitis EXCEPT
infection is due to ingestion of contaminated water.
the oral polio vaccine contains attenuated strains of the virus.
initial sites of viral replication are the throat and small intestine.
the majority of cases are asymptomatic.
most cases result in muscle paralysis.
Which of the following vaccines can cause the disease it is designed to prevent?
oral polio vaccine
Which of the following is a free-living amoeba that can cause encephalitis?
Naegleria and Acanthamoeba