Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart
large molecules such as peptides and proteins move into and out of the bloodstream by way of
the blood vessels that collect blood from all tissues and organs and return it to the heart are the
the most important "factor" in vascular resistance is
the friction between the blood and vessel walls
the specialized exchange surfaces of the liver, bone marrow, and pituitary gland are the
Net hydrostatic pressure forces water......a capillary
out of capillaries and into the interstitial fluid
when dehydration occurs , there is
-accelerated reabsorption of water in kidneys
-a recall of fluis
-an increase in the blood colloidal osmotic pressure
increased CO2 levels in tissues would promote
the "dilatation of precapillary sphincters" and more blood to flow into capillary bed
What are the primary forces that cause fluid to "move out" of a capillary and into the interstitial fluid at its "arterial end"?
primarily in response to Hydrostic pressure
35-25= 10mmHg = NFP (net filtration pressure)
What are the primary forces that cause fluid to "move into" a capillary from the interstitial fluid at its "venous end"?
primarily in response to osmotic pressure
18-25= -7 mmHg =NFP (net filtration pressure)
what two factors assist relatively low venous pressures in propelling blood toward the heart?
muscular compression (contraction of skeletal muscles) and respiratory pump
what two effects occur when the baroreceptors response to elevated blood pressure?
-reduce cardiac output
what factors affect the activity of chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies?
changes in : carbon dioxide, oxygen or pH levels in blood and cerebrospinal fuid.
what age related changes takes place in the blood?
decrease hematocrit, formation of thrombin, valvular malfunctions
what age related changes takes place in the heart?
reduction in max. CO and changes in the activity of the nodal and conducting fibers, reduction in th elasticity of fibrous skeleton, progressive atherosclerosis and replacement of damaged cardiac muscle fibers by scar tissue.
what age related changes takes place in the blood vessels?
progressive in elasticity in arterial walls, deposition of calcium salts, formation of thrombi at atherosclerosis plaques.
in a case where the interstitial hydrostatic pressure is negative , the only force causing capillaries to reabsorb fluid is:
a)colloid osmotic pressure of the blood
b)colloid osmotic pressure of the tissue fluid
colloid osmotic pressure of the "blood"
the difference between the colloid osmotic pressure of blood and that of the tissue fluid is called.......
True or False: In some circulatory pathways, blood can get from an artery to a vein without going through capillaries