Social Psych Final Exam Ch. 11-13

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Conflict is defined as

perceived incompatibility of actions or goals

The occurrence of conflict in any relationship

can stimulate improved human relations

The outcome of creatively managed conflict is

peace

Pursuing one's self-interest to the collective detriment of one's community or society is the central pattern in

a social dilemma

Despite official government warnings of a severe water shortage, most citizens fail to conserve in the belief that their personal water consumption will have little effect on the community's total water supply. The eventual depletion of the community's water resources provides an example of

the tragedy of the commons

In both the Prisoner's Dilemma and the Commons Dilemma, people are tempted to explain their own behavior ___ and other's behavior ____.

Situationally; dispositionally

Which of the following is an example of a non-zero-sum game?

Both the Prisoner's and the Commons Dilemmas

One potential way to prevent conflict is to

Avoid making excess regulations

According to research, it seems that just knowing about the dire consequences of noncooperation in a social dilemma

has little real effect on people's behavior

At the beginning of 2000, people were aware that global warming was already occurring, yet they were also buying gas-slurping SUVs in record numbers. This is an example of

how knowing good does not always lead to doing good

Mio and her colleagues found that after reading about the commons dilemma, theater patrons

littered less

Before they married, Melinda and Michael, who are both employed full time and collect the same pay, agreed to share equally in routine household tasks such as cleaning and grocery shopping. In reality, Melinda is now doing about 80% if the household work. This situation is an example of

an inequitable relationship

What does your text refer to as the "golden rule" of social justice?

Whoever has the gold makes the rules.

Some noncapitalist cultures define justice not as equity but as

either equality or the fulfillment of a need

According to Hatfield, Walster, and Berscheid, when people feel exploited they can react to it with various responses EXCEPT

joining the unexploited group

The reciprocal views that parties in conflict often hold of one another are referred to as

mirror-image perceptions

When two sides have clashing perceptions, at least one of them is misperceiving the other, and when that is the case, according to Bronfenbrenner, it is characteristic of such images that they are

self-confirming

John believes that he is hardworking and that his wife Rachel is lazy. Rachel believes that she is hardworking and that John is lazy. This is an example of

mirror-image perception

For blacks, the most noticeable consequences of desegregated schooling is

the increased likelihood of living and working in integreated settings.

The U.S. Supreme Court's 2003 decision that racial diversity may be a criterion in admissions to colleges and universities was

based on research findings that revealed that racial diversity in the classroom has positive consequences

The fact that 51% of Americans approved of President Bush's performance on Sept. 10, 2001, and 90% of Americans approved of President Bush's performance on Sept. 11, 2001 is an example of

cohesiveness as a result of a common external threat

A goal that overrides people's differences from one another is called a

superordinate goal

According to Slavin, a practical, proven method for implementing contact theory in the desegregated classroom is

peer support groups

Aronson's jigsaw technique involved having elementary school children

form academically and racially diverse groups, with each member of the group becoming an expert in one area

Studies from 11 countries show adolescents have more positive peer relationships and may achieve more when working ___, rather than ____.

Cooperatively; competitively

According to Phinney, someone who identifies with both his or her ethnic culture and the larger culture is said to have a ____ identity.

bicultural

Triandis reported that ____ immigrants felt more comfortable identifying with their ethnicity than ____ immigrants.

grandchildren of; second-generation

____ occurs when a neutral 3rd party studies a conflict and imposes a settlement.

Arbitration

Which of the following is NOT one of the steps in Osgood's GRIT strategy?

Build up first-strike capability to negotiate from a position of strength.

The communitarian synthesis emphasizes

both individualist and collectivist values.

Functional distance refers to

how often people's paths cross

The tendency for novel stimuli to be liked more after repeated exposure to them is referred to as

the mere exposure effect

You feel obligated to vote in the next election, especially because you are usually the first one to complain about the incumbent president. However, you have not had the time to research the positions taken by the candidates. Social psychologists would confidently predict that you are likely to choose the candidate

whose name you have heard most often.

An example of implicit egotism is our tendency to

like the familiar

____ rank attractiveness as important in a mate, while ___ assign importance to honesty, humor, and dependability.

Men; women

The contrast effect of feeling less attractive after viewing a super attractive person applies to our self-perceptions, especially for

women

According to the text, the relationship between the extent to which we are in love with someone and how physically attractive we find that person to be is

positive

At a party, Ellie meets Rob and Blake. The three get involved in a philosophical discussion that lasts through the evening. By the end of the evening, Ellie has discovered that she and Blake see things eye-to-eye, whereas she and Rob see things differently. All else being equal, Ellie will probably like

Blake better

Spouses are more likely than random paired people to share common attitudes, beliefs, and values. The ____ the similarity, the ____ they are.

greater; happier

The relationship between mimicry and rapport is

positive

The tendency for opposites to mate or marry

has never been reliably demonstrated.

According to Elliot Aronson, as a relationship ripens toward greater intimacy, what becomes increasingly important is _____

authenticity

In comparison to women, men fall in love more ____ and out of love more ____

readily; slowly

Which adult attachment style is marked by individuals being less invested in relationships and more likely to engage in one-night stands?

dismissive

When benefits are proportional to contributions in a relationship,

equity exists.

Self-disclosure involves

revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others

Individualistic cultures have ____ divorce rates than communal cultures.

higher

Before agreeing to help out at the local homeless shelter, Sharon weighs the costs and benefits of doing so. This strategy can be predicted by the

social-exchange theory

According to the social-exchange theory, the rewards that motivate helping are

internal or external

A major weakness of the social-exchange theory is that it

easily degenerates into explaining-by-naming

Helping ____ a bad mood and ____ a good mood.

softens; sustains

Mr. Lemming's neighbors mowed his lawn, but he was too sick and weak to reciprocate. We can predict that Mr. Lemming may feel

demeaned because he cannot reciprocate

Ian is from England, Dan is from America, and Tam is from India. Which one of these people is most likely to support and act on the norm of social responsibility?

Tam

In which of the following countries is the norm of social responsibility supported most strongly?

India

A classmate of Bianca's wants to borrow notes to study for an upcoming exam. Research suggests that Bianca will most likely agree if the classmate says she needs the notes because she

has been absent due to illness

____ are twice as likely as ____ to seek medical and psychiatric help.

Women; men

The idea that altruism towards one's close relatives enhances the survival of mutually shared genes is referred to as

kin selection

Latane and Darley had university students complete questionnaires in a small room, and then had smoke pour into the room from a wall vent. Students who were working ____ tended to notice the smoke in ____.

alone; less than 5 seconds

The fact that a person is less likely to help in an emergency when other people are present is called

the bystander effect

In a study by Latane and Rodin, a female experimenter apparently fell and hurt her ankle. When pairs of strangers confronted the emergency, what percentage offered help?

40%

Altruism researcher Daniel Batson reported that empathy-induced altruism

is always helpful

Research evidence indicates that prosocial models of helping

promote altruism in the observers

In an experiment of the Good Samaritan situation, Darley and Batson studied the helpfulness of Princeton seminarians in order to assess whether helping behavior was influenced by

time pressures

Keisha is stopped on the street by a panhandler. She is most likely to give money if

she just had her picture taken

Regarding people who are within one's circle of moral concern is called

moral inclusion

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