Med Final

Created by cynthiaschmitz 

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centesis

surgical puncture

ectomy

excision, removal

stomy

forming an opening or mouth

tomy

incision

gram

record, writing

graph

instrument for recording

graphy

process of recording

scope

instrument for examining

scopy

visual examination

algia

pain

dynia

pain

cele

hernia, swelling

gen, genesis

forming, producing, origin

iasis

abnormal condition produced by something specific

itis

inflammation

malacia

softening

megaly

enlargement

osis

abnormal condition

pathy

disease

plasia

formation or growth

plegia

paralysis

toxic

poison

epi

above, upon

hypo

below, under, deficient

infra, sub

under, below

inter

between

post

after, behind

pre, pro

in front, before

retro

backward, behind

hyper

excessive, above normal

ab

away from

peri

around

dia, trans

through, across

ecto, extra

outside, outward

endo

in, within

anti

against

hetero

different

ology

study of

ologist

specialist in the study of

sagittal plane

divides the body into right and left halves

transverse plane

divides the body into superior and inferior portions

frontal plane

a vertical plane that divides the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions

anterior

front

posterior

Toward the back

ventral

belly side

dorsal

pertaining to the back

proximal

situated nearest to point of attachment or origin

distal

situated farthest from point of attachment or origin, as of a limb or bone

lateral

away from the midline

medial

toward the midline of the body

superior

toward the head

inferior

away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body; below

endoscopy

inspection of body organs or cavities using a lighted scope that may be inserted through an existing opening or through a small incision

laproscopy

exploration of the abdomen and pelvic cavities using a scope placed through a small incision into the abdominal wall

thoracoscopy

examination of the lungs, pleura, and pleural space with a scope inserted through a small incision between the ribs

complete blood count CBC

common blood test that enumerates red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets ; measures hemoglobin; estimates red cell volume; sorts white blood cells into five sub types with their percentages

urinalysis

the examination of the physical and chemical properties of urine to determine the presence of abnormal elements

computed tomography CT

Imaging technique that rotates an x-ray emitter around the area to be scanned and measures the intensity of transmitted rays from different angles

doppler

ultrasound technique used to detect and measure blood-flow velocity and direction through the cardiac chambers, valves, and peripheral vessels by reflecting sound waves off moving blood cells

flouroscopy

radiographic procedure that uses a flourescent screen instead of a photographic plate to produce a visual image from x-rays that pass through the patient, resulting in continuous imaging of the motion

magnetic resonance imaging MRI

noninvasive technique that uses radiowaves and a strong magnetic field, rather than an x-ray beam, to produce multiplanar cross-sectional images, provides superior soft tissue contrast

nuclear scan

diagnostic technique that uses a radioactive material (radiopharmaceutical) called a tracer that is introduced into the body (inhaled, ingested, or injected) and a specialized camera to produce images of organs and structures (reverse of a conventional radiograph; rather than being directed into the body, radiation comes from inside the body and is then detected by a specialized camera to produce an image)

positron emission tomography PET

scanning technique using computed tomography to record the positrons (positive charged particles) emitted from a radiopharmaceutical, that produces a cross-sectional image of metabolic activity in body tissues to determine the presence disease (particularly useful in scanning the brain and nervous system to diagnose disorders that involve abnormal tissue metabolism, such as schizophrenia, brain tumors, epilepsy, stroke, and Alzheimer disease as well as cardiac and pulmonary disorders)

radiography

imaging technique that uses x-rays passed through the body or area and captured on a film; also called x-ray

single photon emission computed tomography SPECT

A neuroimaging technique that provides computer-generated images by tracking blood flow through glucose use by active neurons. It is like PET but uses a longer lasting radioactive tracer. Used to study brain function and structure

tomography

radiographic technique that produces an image representing a detailed cross-section, or slice, of an area, tissue, or organ at a predetermined depth

ultrasonography

image produced by using high-frequency sound waves and displaying the reflected "echoes" on a monitor

frozen section biopsy

ultrathin slice of tissue from a frozen specimen for immediate pathological examination

needle biopsy

removal of a small tissue sample for examination using a hollow needle, usually attached to a syringe

punch biopsy

removal of a small core of tissue using a hollow punch

anastomosis

surgical joining of 2 ducts, vessels to allow flow from one to another

TNM

T- Size and local extent of tumor
N - Lymph node involvement
M - Distant metastasis

TNM Staging

T: tumor size
T0: no evidence of tumor
T1, T2, T3: progressive degrees of tumor size

N: lymph node involvement
N0: no abnormal lymph nodes detected
N1a, N2a: regional lymph node involvement with increasing degrees, NO METASTASES DETECTED
N1b, N2b, N3b: regional lymph node involvement with increasing degrees, METASTASES SUSPECTED
Nx: inability to assess regional lymph nodes

M: distant metastases
M0: no evidence
M1, M2, M3: indicate ascending degrees of distant metastasis and includes distant lymph nodes

Types of Pathology

1.metabolic (diabetes), 2.infectious (measles), 3.congenital (cleft lip), 4.hereditary (hemophilia), 5.environmental (burns, trauma) 6.neoplastic (cancer)

antifungals

alter the cell wall of fungi or disrupt enzyme activity resulting in cell death

antihistamines

inhibit allergic reaction of inflammation, redness, itching caused by release of histamine

antiseptics

topically applied agents that inhibit the growth of bacteria preventing infection of cuts

corticosteriods

decrease inflammation and itching by suppressing immune system's inflammatory response

keratolytics

destroy and soften outer layer of skin so that it is sloughed off

parasiticides

kill insect parasites such as mites and lice

protectives

cover, soothe, cool inflamed skin

topical anesthetics

block sensation of pain by numbing skin

or/o, stomat/o

mouth

gloss/o, lingu/o

tongue

bucc/o

cheek

cheil/o, labi/o

lip

dent/o, odont/o

teeth

gingiv/o

gums

sail/o

salivary gland, saliva

esophag/o

esophagus

pharyng/o

pharynx

gastr/o

stomach

pylor/o

pylorus (funnel shaped terminal portion of stomach, site of digestion)

duoden/o

duodenum (first part of small intestine)

enter/o

intestine (usually small intestine)

jejun/o

jejunum (second part of small intestine)

ile/o

ileum (third part of small intestine)

append/o, appendic/o

appendix

col/o, colon/o

colon

sigmoid/o

sigmoid colon (later portion of descending colon just before rectum)

rect/o

rectum

proct/o

anus or rectum

hepat/o

liver

pancreat/o

pancreas

cholangi/o

bile vessel

chol/e

bile, gall

cholecyst/o

gallbladder

choledoch/o

bile duct

nas/o

nose

rhin/o

nose

sept/o

septum

sinus/o

sinus cavity

adenoid/o

adenoids

tonsill/o

tonsils

pharyng/o

pharynx (throat)

epiglott/o

epiglottis

laryng/o

larynx (voice box)

trache/o

trachea (windpipe)

bronchi/o

bronchus (branches of the trachea leading to lungs)

bronchioles

smallest branches of the bronchus attached to alveoli

alveoli

air sacs of lungs

bronchiol/o

bronchiole (smallest branches of bronchus attached to alveoli)

alveol/o

air sac, alveolus

pleur/o

pleura (serous membrane covering lobes of lungs and walls of thoracic cavity)

pneum/o

air, lung

pneumon/o

air, lung

pulmon/o

lung

anthrac/o

coal dust

atel/o

incomplete

coni/o

dust

cyan/o

blue

lob/o

lobe

orth/o

straight

ox/i

oxygen

ox/o

oxygen

pector/o

chest

steth/o

chest

thorac/o

chest

phren/o

diaphragm

spir/o

breath

-capnia

carbon dioxide CO2

-osmia

smell

-phonia

voice

-pnea

breathing

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