Psychology: Review from Exam 1 for Final

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What is wrong with describing someone as being "schizophrenic"?

d. Labels should be applied to disorders, not to people

All of the following are disadvantages of classifying and diagnosing mental disorders EXCEPT
a. stereotyping.
b. providing structure.
c. labeling.
d. the potential stigma.

b. providing structure

The trend toward deinstitutionalization in recent years means that
a. the number of community services has skyrocketed.
b. people are hospitalized more briefly and then treated on an outpatient basis.
c. inpatient hospitalization in public institutions has increased.
d. people with psychological problems more often receive inpatient treatment than outpatient treatment.

. people are hospitalized more briefly and then treated on an outpatient basis.

In Dr. Lu's study of eating disorders, she looked at the academic histories of girls with an eating disorder and girls who did not have such problem. In this example, the girls without eating disorders are the ________ group.

control

It has been demonstrated that those who were prenatally exposed to the influenza virus are more likely to develop schizophrenia. In other words, prenatal exposure to the influenza virus is ________ correlated with developing schizophrenia.

positively

Most mental health treatment
a. occurs in an outpatient setting.
b. requires an overnight stay.
c. does not involve professionals.
d. occurs in psychiatric hospitals.

occurs in an outpatient setting.

Which of the following may be safely inferred when a significant negative correlation is found between variables x and y?
a. y causes x
b. as x increases, y decreases
c. as x increases, y increases
d. x causes y

as x increases, y decreases

What is the most prevalent grouping of psychological disorder?
a. Substance abuse disorders
b. Depressive disorders
c. Dissociative disorders
d. Anxiety disorders

. Anxiety disorders

What type of research design begins with the identification of individuals who are likely to develop a particular disorder?
a. Correlational
b. Retrospective
c. Prospective
d. Experimental

c. Prospective

The central principle of classical conditioning is that
Choose one answer.
a. the interaction of genetics and social factors best explains human behavior.
b. we repeat those actions that we see others engage in.
c. the consequences of behavior influence its likelihood of being repeated.
d. after repeated pairings with a stimulus that naturally causes a response, a neutral stimulus will cause a similar response.

d. after repeated pairings with a stimulus that naturally causes a response, a neutral stimulus will cause a similar response.

Dorothea Dix
Choose one answer.
a. was a leading force in the emphasis on finding biological cures for mental disorders.
b. urged that religious conversion was a primary means of treatment for the mentally disturbed.
c. is credited with establishing numerous humane mental hospitals in many countries.
d. was a major impediment to the mental hygiene movement in this country.

c. is credited with establishing numerous humane mental hospitals in many countries.

What is trephining?
Choose one answer.
a. A method for assessing the severity of a mental disorder.
b. The ancient study of the bumps on the skull.
c. An ancient practice in which a hole was drilled in the skull to release evil spirits.
d. A form of treatment for schizophrenia.

c. An ancient practice in which a hole was drilled in the skull to release evil spirits.

If you visited an asylum in the 16th Century in Europe you would likely find
Choose one answer.
a. a place where people were given good food, work, and rest so they could recover.
b. mentally ill people living in conditions of filth and cruelty.
c. exorcisms being done by priests.
d. a place which mixed together the mentally ill, the poor, criminals, and the physically ill.

b. mentally ill people living in conditions of filth and cruelty

During the middle ages in Europe, which of the following was most likely to treat mental illness?
Choose one answer.
a. a scientist
b. a surgeon
c. a priest
d. a physician

c. a priest

Philippe Pinel
Choose one answer.
a. believed that mental patients needed to choose rationality over insanity, so treatment was aimed at making their lives as patients uncomfortable.
b. believed that mental illness was due to possession by demons and exorcism was the only useful treatment.
c. believed that mental patients were ill and needed to be treated as such - with kindness and caring.
d. believed that mental illness was purely a physiological phenomena, and could only be treated by physical means such as bloodletting

c. believed that mental patients were ill and needed to be treated as such - with kindness and caring.

"Bedlam" in London was one of several hospitals for the mentally ill in different countries that
Choose one answer.
a. allowed patients a lot of freedom.
b. exhibited their patients for profit.
c. viewed themselves as religious houses for the demonically possessed.
d. treated the mentally ill with physiological treatments.

b. exhibited their patients for profit

The belief in the four humors as a means of explaining temperament
Choose one answer.
a. has yet to be disproven.
b. proposed that mental disorders were the result of an imbalance.
c. is inconsistent with a biological explanation for mental illness.
d. provides that first indication that ancient people recognized the significance of the brain in determining behavior

. proposed that mental disorders were the result of an imbalance.

In ancient societies, if a person's abnormal conduct consisted of speech that appeared to have a religious or mystical significance, then the person was
Choose one answer.
a. assumed to have willingly entered into a pact with the devil.
b. thought to be possessed by a good spirit or god.
c. thought to be a witch.
d. assumed to have something physically wrong with the heart.

b. thought to be possessed by a good spirit or god.

orepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, and GABA are all
Choose one answer.
a. hormones that affect behavior.
b. neurotransmitters that are involved in psychopathology.
c. catecholamines that inhibit nerve impulses.
d. forms of neurotransmitters called amino acids that can cause brain damage.

b. neurotransmitters that are involved in psychopathology.

A predisposition toward developing a disorder
Choose one answer.
a. increases the likelihood of developing any given disorder by 50%.
b. is called a diathesis.
c. necessarily is a psycho-social stressor.
d. necessarily is biological.

b. is called a diathesis

Understanding the causes of mental disorders is important because
Choose one answer.
a. effective treatment is not possible without such an understanding.
b. disagreements about the the causes of psychopathology have long limited the advancements made in the study of abnormal psychology.
c. classification of disorders cannot be done without such information.
d. such knowledge might make both the prevention and cure of mental disorders possible.

d. such knowledge might make both the prevention and cure of mental disorders possible.

After being bitten by a dog, Jose finds that he feels afraid whenever he sees a dog. In classical conditioning terms, the dog can be described as a / an
Choose one answer.
a. conditioned response.
b. conditioned stimulus.
c. unconditioned stimulus.
d. unconditioned response.

b. conditioned stimulus.

When examining heredity, mental disorders are almost always
Choose one answer.
a. not influenced by genes.
b. influenced by recessive genes.
c. influenced by one particular gene.
d. influenced by multiple genes

d. influenced by multiple genes

Which psychosocial perspective was initially developed through laboratory research?
Choose one answer.
a. Psychodynamic
b. Behavioral
c. Biological
d. Humanistic

Behavioral

The four parenting styles described in the text differ along two dimensions, warmth and control. The style associated with the most positive developmental outcome is best described as ________ in warmth and ________ in control.
Choose one answer.
a. high; moderately high
b. low; low
c. high; low
d. low; moderately high

a. high; moderately high

Childhood abuse is commonly seen in those who develop dissociative disorders later in life. Childhood abuse would best be described as a
Choose one answer.
a. necessary contributory cause.
b. reinforcing contributory cause.
c. distal contributory cause.
d. proximal contributory cause

c. distal contributory cause.

Etiology is
Choose one answer.
a. a condition that tends to maintain maladaptive behavior.
b. a predisposition toward developing a disorder.
c. the causal pattern of a disorder.
d. a condition that makes it less likely a person will experience the negative consequences of stress.

c. the causal pattern of a disorder.

Cognitive-behavioral psychologists believe that abnormal behavior
Choose one answer.
a. results from neurotic thought processes.
b. results from distorted thinking and information processing.
c. consists of learned maladaptive response patterns.
d. results from impaired patterns of interpersonal relationships.

b. results from distorted thinking and information processing.

A valid test
Choose one answer.
a. measures what it is designed to measure.
b. is standardized.
c. yields consistent results.
d. rarely is reliable.

a. measures what it is designed to measure.

Which of the following best explains why the the Rorschach is less likely to be used today?
Choose one answer.
a. Treatment facilities often require other types of information than the Rorschach provides and insurance companies do not pay for it.
b. Which of the following best explains why the the Rorschach is less likely to be used today?
c. It is inexpensive and time efficient in comparison to other projective techniques.
d. The Rorschach is only useful as a means of aiding clients in self-discovery; it has no true clinical utility.

a. Treatment facilities often require other types of information than the Rorschach provides and insurance companies do not pay for it.

There are two general categories of psychological tests used in clinical practice. They are
Choose one answer.
a. projective tests and sentence completion tests.
b. intelligence tests and personality tests.
c. neuropsychological tests and standardized tests.
d. intelligence tests and rating scales.

b. intelligence tests and personality tests.

What does it mean if Carol scores high on the Schizophrenia scale of the MMPI?
Choose one answer.
a. Carol has schizophrenia.
b. Carol is 30% more likely to develop schizophrenia than those who scored lower.
c. Carol's responses on this scale were similar to those of the Minnesota normals.
d. Carol's answers were comparable to those given by a group of people diagnosed with schizophrenia.

d. Carol's answers were comparable to those given by a group of people diagnosed with schizophrenia.

Projective" and "objective" are two types of ________ tests.
Choose one answer.
a. neuropsychological
b. intelligence
c. personality
d. psychodynamically oriented

c. personality

The MMPI is
Choose one answer.
a. a recently developed objective approach to personality assessment.
b. a structured approach to personality assessment.
c. a rating scale used to determine how comparable one is to individuals with various psychiatric diagnoses.
d. the most commonly used test of intelligence.

b. a structured approach to personality assessment.

If you are generally a satisfied and happy person, but you suffer from some test anxiety and you don't like speaking in front of groups, how would your level of functioning be described using the GAF scale?
Choose one answer.
a. 90
b. 10
c. 0
d. 100

90

Dr. Smith believes that a decrease in frontal lobe function underlies the cognitive deficits seen in schizophrenia. He has hypothesized that effective drug therapy serves to selectively increase metabolic activity in this part of the brain. Which of the following is Dr. Smith most likely to use to test his hypothesis?
Choose one answer.
a. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
b. An electroencephalogram (EEG)
c. Computerized axial tomography (CAT) scans
d. Positron emission tomography (PET) scans

d. Positron emission tomography (PET) scans

Which of the following would be used to reveal a dysrhythmia in brain activity?
Choose one answer.
a. PET scan
b. CAT scan
c. MRI
d. EEG

EEG

Disorders that begin by adolescence or early adulthood, persist for long periods of time, and affect many areas of a person's life are listed on
Choose one answer.
a. Axis V.
b. Axis II.
c. Axis IV.
d. Axis III.

b. Axis II.

Why is it important to have an appropriate classification of the presenting problem?
Choose one answer.
a. A formal diagnosis may be needed for insurance purposes.
b. A determination of the range of presenting symptoms is needed to ensure proper placement in a treatment facility.
c. A recognition of what type of disorder is present will aid in the development of an effective treatment plan.
d. All answers are correct.

d. All answers are correct.

Which of the following is NOT an example of the three phenomena that the term resilience has been used to describe?
Choose one answer.
a. Despite her low IQ, Julie finished school and became a successful banker.
b. After failing French the first time, Carl did not earn a passing grade when he took the course for a second time.
c. The trauma of Julio's father's death never interfered with his plans.
d. Following the events of September 11th, the children of PS100 in New York City were able to resume their studies and finish the school year without incident.

b. After failing French the first time, Carl did not earn a passing grade when he took the course for a second time.

After being bitten by a dog, Jose finds that he feels afraid whenever he sees a dog. In classical conditioning terms, the dog can be described as a / an
Choose one answer.
a. conditioned response.
b. unconditioned response.
c. conditioned stimulus.
d. unconditioned stimulus.

c. conditioned stimulus.

All of the following were likely to be part of moral treatment in the 1800s EXCEPT
Choose one answer.
a. manual labor.
b. spiritual discussions.
c. character development.
d. antipsychotic medication.

d. antipsychotic medication.

Fred refuses to speak at school, although he speaks normally at home. His therapist plans out a treatment where Fred is given a gold star every time he answers his teacher, and he can then trade in his stars for prizes. Fred begins speaking in class. The therapist then tells the teacher to stop the program for a couple of weeks. Fred stopped talking during that time. The teacher then starting giving Fred stars again, and Fred again began to talk. This is an example of
Choose one answer.
a. a case study.
b. a correlational study.
c. an ABAB experimental design study.
d. a self-report study

c. an ABAB experimental design study.

uppose that low self-esteem is a diathesis for developing depression later in life. This means that
Choose one answer.
a. people who currently are depressed will have low self-esteem.
b. low self-esteem is a proximal trigger for depression.
c. people with low self-esteem have a predisposition for developing depression.
d. the psychological processes associated with low self-esteem are the trigger for depression

c. people with low self-esteem have a predisposition for developing depression.

Which of the following is an objective test?
Choose one answer.
a. Rorschach Test
b. Thematic Apperception Test
c. Sentence-Completion Test
d. MMPI-2

d. MMPI-2

A protective factor is
Choose one answer.
a. an influence that modifies a persons response to environmental stressors.
b. an influence that modifies a persons response to genetic problems.
c. a distal causal factor for a mental disorder.
d. a biological makeup that makes people more resistant to stress.

a. an influence that modifies a persons response to environmental stressors.

What is the most important limitation of correlational studies?
Choose one answer.
a. They cannot determine cause and effect.
b. They are very subject to bias.
c. They rarely have representative samples.
d. They are very difficult to do.

a. They cannot determine cause and effect.

In a study of the effects of ice cream on mood, the mood after ice cream exposure can be described as what?
Choose one answer.
a. The dependent variable
b. The independent variable
c. A correlational variable
d. A confounding variable

a. The dependent variable

The central principle of classical conditioning is that
Choose one answer.
a. after repeated pairings with a stimulus that naturally causes a response, a neutral stimulus will cause a similar response.
b. we repeat those actions that we see others engage in.
c. the consequences of behavior influence its likelihood of being repeated.
d. the interaction of genetics and social factors best explains human behavior.

a. after repeated pairings with a stimulus that naturally causes a response, a neutral stimulus will cause a similar response.

Shanna goes to Dr. Henderson for a first interview. He diagnosis her with a depressive disorder. She then goes to Dr. Smithson, because her friend recommended her. Dr. Smithson diagnoses Shanna with an anxiety disorder. This demonstrates a problem with
Choose one answer.
a. structured interviews.
b. multiaxial diagnosis.
c. reliability.
d. flexibility.

c. reliability.

Which of the following would be used to reveal a dysrhythmia in brain activity?
Choose one answer.
a. CAT scan
b. EEG
c. MRI
d. PET scan

b. EEG

A person comes to a mental health professional with a certain complaint. The professional attempts to understand the nature and extent of the problem. This process is called
Choose one answer.
a. diagnosis.
b. assessment.
c. clinical treatment.
d. screening.

assessment

Which parental style is characterized by warmth, control, and communication?
Choose one answer.
a. Authoritarian
b. Permissive/indulgent
c. Authoritative
d. Neglectful-uninvolved

c. Authoritative

What was the purpose of the early asylums?
Choose one answer.
a. To remove those who could not care for themselves from society
b. To provide exorcisms
c. To offer humanitarian treatment to those afflicted with mental illnesses
d. To offer biological approaches to the treatment of mental disorders

a. To remove those who could not care for themselves from society

Which of the following psychodynamic elements of the personality can be described as impulsive and selfish?
Choose one answer.
a. Ego
b. Id
c. Superego
d. Ideal self

b. Id

Which of the following best illustrates high reliability?
Choose one answer.
a. An interviewer modifies the way she asks questions to fit the style of the client.
b. Two interviewers diagnose the same disorder after talking to the same client.
c. A clinician accurately predicts that a client will become violent when reunited with this family.
d. A clinician uses both medical (e.g., MRI) and psychological (e.g., MMPI-2) information to decide a diagnosis.

b. Two interviewers diagnose the same disorder after talking to the same client.

"Bedlam" in London was one of several hospitals for the mentally ill in different countries that
Choose one answer.
a. treated the mentally ill with physiological treatments.
b. exhibited their patients for profit.
c. viewed themselves as religious houses for the demonically possessed.
d. allowed patients a lot of freedom.

b. exhibited their patients for profit.

Which of the following is NOT a reason for using rating scales in clinical observation and self reports?
Choose one answer.
a. To increase reliability
b. To provide structure
c. To decrease objectivity
d. To allow standardized comparisons to be made

c. To decrease objectivity

Dr. Kim is a psychologist who uses a number of tests to measure a person's cognitive, perceptual, and motor performance to detect brain damage. Dr. Kim is probably a specialist in using
Choose one answer.
a. neuropsychological assessment.
b. functional magnetic resonance imaging.
c. computerized axial tomography.
d. functional electroencephalograms

a. neuropsychological assessment.

Which psychosocial perspective was initially developed through laboratory research?
Choose one answer.
a. Behavioral
b. Biological
c. Humanistic
d. Psychodynamic

Behavioral

Childhood abuse is commonly seen in those who develop dissociative disorders later in life. Childhood abuse would best be described as a
Choose one answer.
a. necessary contributory cause.
b. proximal contributory cause.
c. reinforcing contributory cause.
d. distal contributory cause.

d. distal contributory cause.

hat type of prevalence estimate tends to be highest?
Choose one answer.
a. Point prevalence
b. One-year prevalence
c. Lifetime prevalence
d. Virtual prevalence

c. Lifetime prevalence

What did Seligman find by studying dogs exposed to uncontrollable shock?
Choose one answer.
a. Seligman demonstrated that dogs can get depressed.
b. Seligman found that the dogs became aggressive.
c. Seligman found that uncontrollable shock led the dogs to behave much like depressed humans.
d. Seligman found that the exposure to the shock altered the level of brain chemicals known to be involved in depression.

c. Seligman found that uncontrollable shock led the dogs to behave much like depressed humans.

Understanding the causes of mental disorders is important because
Choose one answer.
a. effective treatment is not possible without such an understanding.
b. classification of disorders cannot be done without such information.
c. such knowledge might make both the prevention and cure of mental disorders possible.
d. disagreements about the the causes of psychopathology have long limited the advancements made in the study of abnormal psychology.

c. such knowledge might make both the prevention and cure of mental disorders possible.

During an assessment interview, Dr. Poole noted that Jane's boss at work was harassing her. On which of the five axes of the DSM would this information be noted?
Choose one answer.
a. Axis II
b. Axis III
c. Axis IV
d. Axis V

c. Axis IV

Several clinicians look at the TAT results of a hospitalized patient. The patient described the characters on the card as not speaking to each other. One clinician says this means the patient has a lot of unresolved anger. Another says it means the patient has a lot of social anxiety. The third says he thinks it means the patient is uninterested in people and prefers to be alone. This demonstrates the following problem with the TAT:
Choose one answer.
a. Scoring and interpretation is very subjective.
b. The pictures on the cards are new and updated.
c. The amount of time it takes to score and interpret it.
d. The lack of training of clinicians on using it.

a. Scoring and interpretation is very subjective.

Children born with a genetic predisposition to be introverted
Choose one answer.
a. can become truly extraverted if they are encouraged to do so.
b. are likely to be more or less introverted depending on childhood experiences growing up.
c. developed this genetic predisposition because of genetic mutations occurring after birth.
d. are also predisposed to develop many psychological disorders

b. are likely to be more or less introverted depending on childhood experiences growing up.

A predisposition toward developing a disorder
Choose one answer.
a. necessarily is biological.
b. is called a diathesis.
c. increases the likelihood of developing any given disorder by 50%.
d. necessarily is a psycho-social stressor

b. is called a diathesis.

One criticism of diagnostic labels is that
Choose one answer.
a. they can influence both other people's and the diagnosed person's perception of themselves in negative ways.
b. there are so many different systems of diagnosis that it is hard to understand what an individual diagnosis means.
c. the multiaxial system is so complicated to use that few people are able to use it well.
d. they make other information unnecessary, so restrict the type of services that insurance will cover.

a. they can influence both other people's and the diagnosed person's perception of themselves in negative ways.

What makes defining abnormality difficult?
Choose one answer.
a. There are so many types of abnormal behavior that they can't be accurately described.
b. There is no one behavior that serves to make someone abnormal.
c. Most of us are abnormal much of the time so that we cannot tell what is normal.
d. Criteria for abnormality have yet to be developed.

b. There is no one behavior that serves to make someone abnormal.

Which of the following is a disadvantage of having a classification system for mental disorders?
Choose one answer.
a. A classification system establishes the types of problems that mental professionals can treat.
b. When a label is used to describe an individual's behavior. information about the person is lost.
c. A classification system allows for research to advance.
d. Identifying the disorder that an individual has guides treatment.

b. When a label is used to describe an individual's behavior. information about the person is lost.

Dr. Simon, a psychiatrist, takes a biopsychosocial viewpoint of psychopathology. Which of the following treatments is he most likely to suggest for Julia's current state of depression?
Choose one answer.
a. Intense psychotherapy
b. A prolonged vacation
c. A combination of psychological therapy and antidepressant drugs
d. Family therapy and a change in her work environment

c. A combination of psychological therapy and antidepressant drugs

Practically speaking, "abnormal" behavior means
Choose one answer.
a. any behavior that is "away from the normal" and causes any distress.
b. any behavior that causes the person distress.
c. any behavior that causes us to consider our values.
d. unusual behaviors that are not consistent with the norms of the society in which they are displayed

d. unusual behaviors that are not consistent with the norms of the society in which they are displayed.

Behaviorists suggest maladaptive behavior can be a result of
Choose one answer.
a. extinction.
b. lack of generalization of behaviors.
c. a poor response-outcome expectancy.
d. failure to learn adaptive behaviors.

d. failure to learn adaptive behaviors.

The fact that body piercings are commonplace today while they would once have been viewed as abnormal illustrates that
Choose one answer.
a. modern society is always open to change.
b. what is acceptable for men and women is no longer different.
c. American culture values independence.
d. the values of a society may change over time.

d. the values of a society may change over time.

Maria believes that her dead grandmother occasionally speaks to her. In deciding if Maria has a mental illness or not, which of the following is important?
Choose one answer.
a. How old is Maria?
b. Is Maria's belief consistent with the beliefs of her culture?
c. Do people in general consider Maria's belief abnormal?
d. Does her belief match any of the symptoms in the disorders in the DSM?

b. Is Maria's belief consistent with the beliefs of her culture?

Making a new experience fit existing frameworks is associated with ________; changing our existing frameworks to incorporate a new experience is associated with ________.
Choose one answer.
a. positive attributions; negative attributions
b. accommodation; assimilation
c. self-efficacy; self-identity
d. assimilation; accommodation

d. assimilation; accommodation

Dr. Vera says, "It may only provide a limited view of a person's problems, but it is important for planning appropriate treatment. Administratively, it is essential so that a facility can know what kinds of problems clients need help with. Even if we don't want to do it, insurance claims require it." What is Dr. Vera is referring to?
Choose one answer.
a. Formal diagnosis
b. Screening activities
c. Taking a personal history
d. Assessment

a. Formal diagnosis

Shackling a patient to a wall with little food or heat would be most typical of
Choose one answer.
a. the hospitals run by Philippe Pinel.
b. the sanatoriums of Alexandria, Egypt.
c. the early asylums in Europe.
d. the treatment advocated by Hippocrates

c. the early asylums in Europe.

Which of the following statements regarding divorce and psychopathology is true?
Choose one answer.
a. A causal relationship has been established between psychopathology and a parental divorce.
b. There is a positive correlation between psychopathology and divorce.
c. The adverse effects of parental divorce are always temporary.
d. While a relationship between parental divorce and psychopathology has been established, there are no data to suggest that divorced persons experience an increased rate of psychopathology.

b. There is a positive correlation between psychopathology and divorce.

Stereotyping is an example of the stigma of mental illness. It means

Choose one answer.
a. people are reluctant to discuss their psychological problems because they are afraid others won't like them.
b. people feel very sad and upset when they find out they have a mental illness.
c. the automatic and often incorrect beliefs people have about people with mental illness.
d. the problem of removing the diagnosis, even if people make a full recovery from mental illness.

c. the automatic and often incorrect beliefs people have about people with mental illness.

What type of research design begins with the identification of individuals who are likely to develop a particular disorder?
Choose one answer.
a. Correlational
b. Experimental
c. Prospective
d. Retrospective

c. Prospective

While having a gene for Parkinson's disease guarantees that Parkinson's disease will develop, this is not the only factor that can lead to Parkinson's disease. In other words, the presence of the gene is a ________, but not a ________.
Choose one answer.
a. risk factor; sufficient cause
b. sufficient cause; necessary cause
c. necessary cause; risk factor
d. contributory cause; sufficient cause

b. sufficient cause; necessary cause

Which of the following statements regarding assessment is true?
Choose one answer.
a. Assessment should focus only on the client's current level of functioning.
b. An adequate assessment includes a determination of the amount of danger the client poses to himself and others.
c. An adequate assessment should include as much information as possible.
d. Assessment necessarily involves the gathering of data about the client from multiple sources

c. An adequate assessment should include as much information as possible.

A psychologist who takes a behavioral perspective would focus on
Choose one answer.
a. learning.
b. early experiences.
c. unconscious conflicts.
d. the role of behavioral factors

learning

The need for rapport between a clinician and a client means
Choose one answer.
a. that the clinician and the client must feel friendly toward each other.
b. that someone who is court ordered will be an easy client.
c. clients don't need to be given any feedback about their test performance.
d. the client must feel comfortable with the clinician and the assessment.

d. the client must feel comfortable with the clinician and the assessment.

"All people have a certain amount of magnetic fluid. When the fluid is poorly distributed in the body it causes illness. The planets and the magnetic forces in other people can redistribute magnetism and produce cures." Who was most likely to say something like this?
Choose one answer.
a. a young Sigmund Freud
b. Emil Kraepelin
c. Jean Charcot
d. Franz Mesmer

d. Franz Mesmer

What is lycanthropy?
Choose one answer.
a. A form of mass hysteria characterized by wild dance-like movements
b. A condition in which people believe themselves to be possessed by wolves
c. A form of mass madness seen only in men
d. A form of mass hysteria now known to have been drug-induced

b. A condition in which people believe themselves to be possessed by wolves

Freud is the first to describe the ________: that the mind could contain information of which it is unaware, but by which it is still affected.
Choose one answer.
a. catharsis
b. unconscious
c. hysteria
d. operant conditioning

b. unconscious

Due to ________, we can learn from the experiences of others.
Choose one answer.
a. classical conditioning
b. generalization
c. instrumental conditioning
d. observational learning

d. observational learning

A behaviorally oriented clinician tells her alcohol dependent client: "Here is a checklist I want you to fill out each day. Whenever you feel you need a drink, you should indicate what you were thinking, where you were, who you were with, and whether you went ahead and drank." What procedure is the clinician using?
Choose one answer.
a. Self-monitoring
b. Rating scales
c. Self-analysis
d. Mental status exam

a. Self-monitoring

Carl is asked to provide information about his drinking. Despite the fact that he has had several arrests for driving will intoxicated, Carl reports that he has no problems with drinking. This is an example of
Choose one answer.
a. the problems with self-report data.
b. the problems with objective data.
c. the problems of diagnosis.
d. the problems of forming hypotheses

a. the problems with self-report data.

When psychologists say that a person shows resilience, it means
Choose one answer.
a. the person has not been faced with significant stressors.
b. that regardless of the stresses the person faces, he or she will feel no emotional distress.
c. the person can successfully adapt and survive in threatening circumstances.
d. recovering from traumatic events without the need for psychological protective factors.

c. the person can successfully adapt and survive in threatening circumstances.

Which of the following would most likely be explored with an experiment?
Choose one answer.
a. The possible causes of schizophrenia
b. The effect of the home environment on relapse to drug use
c. The effectiveness of a new treatment for depression
d. The relationships between early childhood trauma and substance abuse

c. The effectiveness of a new treatment for depression

Which of the following is included in the DSM?
Choose one answer.
a. A discussion of the various causes of mental disorders
b. A means of identifying different mental disorders
c. A description of the necessary and sufficient conditions for mental illness
d. A description of all of the possible treatments for each disorder

b. A means of identifying different mental disorders

The four parenting styles described in the text differ along two dimensions, warmth and control. The style associated with the most positive developmental outcome is best described as ________ in warmth and ________ in control.
Choose one answer.
a. high; low
b. low; low
c. high; moderately high
d. low; moderately high

c. high; moderately high

In the field of abnormal psychology, what does DSM stand for?
Choose one answer.
a. Disorders, Science, and the Mind
b. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual
c. Descriptors for the Science of the MInd
d. Diagnostic Science of the Mind

b. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual

Suppose that, using linkage analysis, a researcher finds that family members with a high likelihood of developing depression also are very likely to be of below average height. This would mean
Choose one answer.
a. being short is a contributory factor for depression.
b. the gene for depression is probably located near the gene for height.
c. height and depression are probably caused by the same gene.
d. having depression causes people not to grow as tall as they would if they didn't have depression

b. the gene for depression is probably located near the gene for height.

Cognitive-behavioral psychologists believe that abnormal behavior
Choose one answer.
a. consists of learned maladaptive response patterns.
b. results from distorted thinking and information processing.
c. results from neurotic thought processes.
d. results from impaired patterns of interpersonal relationships.

b. results from distorted thinking and information processing.

Disorders that begin by adolescence or early adulthood, persist for long periods of time, and affect many areas of a person's life are listed on
Choose one answer.
a. Axis II.
b. Axis III.
c. Axis IV.
d. Axis V.

a. Axis II.

The trend toward deinstitutionalization in recent years means that
Choose one answer.
a. inpatient hospitalization in public institutions has increased.
b. people with psychological problems more often receive inpatient treatment than outpatient treatment.
c. people are hospitalized more briefly and then treated on an outpatient basis.
d. the number of community services has skyrocketed.

c. people are hospitalized more briefly and then treated on an outpatient basis.

Who is credited with making the first major steps toward understanding the psychological factors involved in mental illness?
Choose one answer.
a. Alois Alzheimer
b. Wilhelm Griesinger
c. Clifford Beers
d. Sigmund Freud

d. Sigmund Freud

A catharsis is
Choose one answer.
a. a type of hypnosis.
b. an emotional release.
c. the part of the brain where the unconscious exists.
d. a type of hysteria

b. an emotional release.

During the middle ages in Europe, which of the following was most likely to treat mental illness?
Choose one answer.
a. a priest
b. a physician
c. a scientist
d. a surgeon

a. a priest

The central principle of operant conditioning is that
Choose one answer.
a. certain reflexes cause us to engage in habitual behavior.
b. we repeat those actions that we see others engage in.
c. the consequences of behavior influence its likelihood of being repeated.
d. the interaction of genetics and social factors best explains human behavior.

c. the consequences of behavior influence its likelihood of being repeated.

Which of the following would be characteristic of the treatment provided by the first mental hospitals or sanatoria used by the Romans and Greeks?
Choose one answer.
a. The use of trephining and other biological approaches
b. Psychodynamic therapy
c. Exorcisms
d. Warm baths and massages

d. Warm baths and massages

Which of the following occurred in the late twentieth century?
Choose one answer.
a. The establishment of large inpatient facilities for the mentally ill
b. A movement of the mentally ill from institutions to the community
c. Dramatic increases in the cost of caring for the mentally ill
d. The inpatient mentally ill population doubled

b. A movement of the mentally ill from institutions to the community

If you are generally a satisfied and happy person, but you suffer from some test anxiety and you don't like speaking in front of groups, how would your level of functioning be described using the GAF scale?
Choose one answer.
a. 0
b. 10
c. 90
d. 100

c. 90

A common treatment for mental illness during the Middle Ages in Europe was
Choose one answer.
a. exorcism.
b. fresh air and supportive surroundings.
c. banishment.
d. an early form of psychoanalytic dream interpretation.

a. exorcism.

Which of the following demonstrates reliability?
Choose one answer.
a. An IQ test is effective in predicting the academic performance of both males and females.
b. Scores on an IQ test are not affected by mood.
c. Scores on two different intelligence tests are highly correlated.
d. When an IQ test is administered to the same person repeatedly, the results do not differ

d. When an IQ test is administered to the same person repeatedly, the results do not differ

Dr. Smith believes that a decrease in frontal lobe function underlies the cognitive deficits seen in schizophrenia. He has hypothesized that effective drug therapy serves to selectively increase metabolic activity in this part of the brain. Which of the following is Dr. Smith most likely to use to test his hypothesis?
Choose one answer.
a. Computerized axial tomography (CAT) scans
b. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
c. Positron emission tomography (PET) scans
d. An electroencephalogram (EEG)

c. Positron emission tomography (PET) scans

Which of the following statements is true?
Choose one answer.
a. Most behavioral disorders are determined exclusively by genes.
b. Genes play a role in most mental disorders.
c. Genes do not affect biochemical processes.
d. The genes that will be expressed in an individual are not affected by experience

b. Genes play a role in most mental disorders.

The approaches to treatment of the mentally ill during the Middle Ages in Europe are best characterized as
Choose one answer.
a. superstitious.
b. humane.
c. medical.
d. scientific.

a. superstitious.

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