Ch. 9

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According to body mass index values, what fraction of the U.S. adult population is considered overweight or obese?

2/3

According to body mass index figures, what percentage of people aged 2-19 years are overweight or obese?

33

Which of the following is a characteristic of fat cell development?

More and larger fat cells are found in obese people compared with healthy-weight persons

All of the following describe the behavior of fat cells except

the number decreases when fat is lost from the body.

In the quest for achieving desirable body weight, adults have control over all of the following except

adipocyte number.

What is the rationale for the fat cell theory of obesity?

Fat cell number increases most readily in late childhood and early puberty

Which of the following is known to promote fat storage in adipocytes?

Lipoprotein lipase

The most likely explanation for why women readily store fat around the hips whereas men readily store fat around the abdomen is gender differences in

the activity of lipoprotein lipase.

Obesity resulting from an increase in the size of fat cells is termed

hypertrophic obesity.

Adverse effects on organs such as the liver from the presence of excess body fat is known as

lipotoxicity.

Hyperplastic obesity is related to a(n)

increase in the number of fat cells.

Obesity resulting from an increase in the number of fat cells is termed

hyperplastic obesity.

Which of the following defines the body's set point?

Point above which the body tends to lose weight and below which it tends to gain weight

On which organ or tissue does leptin primarily act?

Hypothalamus

Which of the following is known to cause a reduction in fat cell number in mice?

Injection of leptin

What are the observed effects of sleep deprivation on leptin and ghrelin?

Leptin decreases while ghrelin increases

Which of the following describes a relationship between leptin and energy balance?

Blood levels of leptin usually correlate directly with body fat

Which of the following is a feature of leptin?

It is a satiety signal

Which of the following is a feature of ghrelin?

It stimulates appetite and energy storage

All of the following are hormones that promote satiety except

ghrelin

What serves as the body's chief storage site for lipids?

White adipose tissue

What is the chief factor that determines a person's susceptibility to obesity?

Heredity and environment

Television watching contributes to obesity for all of the following reasons except

it replaces time that could be spent eating.

To help prevent body fat gain, the DRI suggests daily, moderately intense, physical activities totaling

60 minutes.

A popular eating plan that promises quick weight loss is known as a(n)

fad diet.

What is the principal reason that the FDA has banned the sale of products containing ephedrine?

The products were implicated in several cases of heart attacks and seizures

Over-the-counter products labeled as "dieter's tea" are reported to lead to

nausea and diarrhea.

Clinically severe obesity is also known as

morbid obesity.

Bariatrics is a field of medicine that specializes in the treatment of

obesity.

conditions

ability to tolerate sibutramine, orlistat, or phentermine.

All of the following are characteristics of the results of weight-loss surgery except

medical supervision in the postsurgery period is required only for the first 6-9 months.

What is a safe rate of weight loss on a long-term basis for most overweight people?

0.5-2 lbs/week

As a general rule, what minimum number of kcalories per day is necessary to ensure nutritional adequacy in an eating plan for reducing body weight?

1200

Which of the following would be most effective at lowering energy intake in a person on a weight reduction program?

Select less energy-dense foods

What is the best approach to weight loss?

Reduce daily energy intake and increase energy expenditure

An important aid in any weight-loss diet program is to

increase physical activity.

Which of the following describes a connection between physical activity and energy expenditure?

Walking a mile uses about the same energy as running a mile

What is the principal reason that appetite is turned off immediately after a person finishes an intense workout?

Glucose and fatty acids are still abundant in the blood

Approximately how many kcalories per week should be expended in physical activity in order to maintain a weight loss?

2000

All of the following are behavior modifications for losing weight except

taking smaller portions of food but always eating everything on the plate quickly.

An example of a behavior modification technique for weight control is to

keep a record of your eating habits.

Which of the following is a feature of energy metabolism in formerly obese people who have lost weight?

Energy requirements are lower than expected for their current body weight

To qualify for successful weight-loss maintenance, a 200-pound person who intentionally lost 20 lbs must hold the loss for at least

1 year.

Because obesity apparently has many causes, even in an individual, the best approach seems to be

prevention.

Approximately what percentage of U.S. adults are classified as underweight?

5

The classification of underweight is defined when the BMI first drops below

18.5.

Among the following, which is the most important strategy for an underweight person who wishes to achieve a healthy body weight?

A high-kcalorie diet plus regular exercise

Which of the following would not be part of a successful program of weight gain in an underweight individual?

Eat a large number of small meals

Fad diets often produce weight loss, at least initially, because

they are designed to limit energy intake to around 1200 kcal/day.

The prescription drug sibutramine acts by regulating the utilization of

serotonin.

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