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Which of the following is not a characteristic of all animals?
A.They are able to move at some point in their life.
B. They get their energy by eating other organisms.
C. They are multicellular.
D. They are reproducing sexually at some point in their life cycle.
E. All of the above are characteristics of all animals.

D. They are reproducing sexually at some point in their life cycle.

The lineage that first separated from the common ancestor of all animals, and retains many of those primitive features to this day, includes which of the following modern organisms?
A. The grasshopper
B. The jellyfish
C. The sponge
D. The earthworm
E. The sea turtle

C. The sponge

Which of the following extant species is the most evolutionarily successful?
A. The house mouse
B. The housefly
C. the Western gorilla
D. lrukandji, the toxic jellyfish
E. all of the above species are equally successful because they are not extinct.

E. All of the above species are equally successful because they are not extinct.

Sponges are sessile, meaning that they:
A. reproduce asexually
B. are parasitic and depend on their host for a constant supply of nutrients
C. have exoskeletons that they must shed as they grow
D. live within shells they find on the ocean floor.
E. live attached to a solid structure and do not move around.

E. live attached to a solid structure and do not move around.

In cnidarians, cnidocysts are primarily used for:
A. creation of water flow across the body wall
B. formation of free-living medusas
C. secretion of digestive enzymes
D. prey capture and defense
E. muscular contraction during movement

D. prey capture and defense

The mollusk's matle is used primarily for:
A. feeding
B. gas exchange
C. producing the shell
D. excretion
E. reproduction

C. producing the shell

Which of the following insect groups has the most species currently named by scientists?
A. bees, wasps, and ants
B. beetles
C. grasshoppers and crickets
D. flies
E. butterflies and moths

B. beetles

Which is the only animal phylum to have more than a million described species?
A. chordates
B. arthropods
C. flatworms
D. nematodes
E. mollusks

B. arthropods

The phylum Arthropoda includes all of the following kinds of animals except:
A. snails
B. crabs
C. crayfish
D. butterflies
E. scorpions

A. snails

Which of the following trays is unique to arthropods?
A. a ventral nerve cord
B. an exoskeleton
C. segmentation
D. a large ratio of brain size to body size
E. wheeled appendages

B. an exoskeleton

Which of the following are chordates?
A. fishes
B. humans
C. frogs
D. all of the above are chordates
E. only a and c are chordates

D. all of the above are chordates

The two most important evolutionary innovations in vertebrates, which resulted in their eventual domination among the large animals, were:
A. air-breathing lungs and a more efficient heart
B. opposable thumbs
C. jaws and amniotic eggs
D. the ability to walk or fly
E. air-bretahing lungs and endothermy

C. jaws and amniotic eggs

Which of these animals is a tetrapod that does not produce amniotic eggs?
A. salamander
B. human
C. monkey
D elephant
E. python

A. salamander

Why is the amniotic egg considered a key evolutionary innovation?
A. it prohibits textural fertilization, thereby facilitating the evolutionary innovation of internal fertilization
B. it has an unbreakable shell
C. it greatly increases the likelihood of survival of the eggs in a terrestrial environment
D. it enabled eggs to float in an aquatic medium
E. it extends the time of embryonic development

C. it enables eggs to float in an aquatic medium

Which came first, the chicken or the egg?
A. the chicken, because the amniotic egg did not evolve until the first chicken appeared
B. the egg, because the amniotic egg evolved well before the first birds
C. the chicken, because, during speciation, the adult stage always precedes the juvenile stage
D. the egg, because the chicken is not a real species
E. it is impossible to determine, because eggs have no fossils

B. the egg, because the amniotic egg evolved well before the first birds

Which of the following is not a reptile?
A. sparrow
B. snake
C. frog
D. turtle
E. dinosaur

C. frog

Marsupials and which of the following groups combine to make a monophyletic group?
A. birds
B. carnivores
C. primates
D. monotremes
E. placental mammals

E. placental mammals

According to the fossil record, the first humans appeared approximately ____ years ago.
A. 6 million
B. 6,000
C. 190 million
D. 100,000
E. 1 million

D. 100,000

In the plant kingdom, all the different species are descended from a single common ancestor. In terms of phylogeny, what type of tree is that?
A. monophyletic
B. unbranched
C. biphyletic
D. uniphyletic
E. branched

A. monophyletic

Which of the following is a significant new challenge that plants faced when they moved from their aquatic environment onto the land?
A. light availability
B. desiccation
C. nutrient availability
D. predation
E. the need for osmotic regulation

B. desiccation

Which is the best brief description of the vascular system of the very first terrestrial plants?
A. the first plants developed specialized vessel cells that conducted water
B. the first plants did not possess a vascular system
C. the first plants had a very basic vascular system with a simple method of internal transport
D. the first plants had only long, needle-like leaves, from which water could evaporate easily
E. none of the above answers is correct

B. the first plants did not possess a vascular system

Which of the following statements about ferns is incorrect?
A. their sporophyte is dominant
B. they require liquid water for fertilization
C. their seeds are dispersed by the wind
D. they have vascular tissue for distributing water and nutrients throughout the plant
E. their spores are contained in sporangia

C. their seeds are dispersed by the wind

Mosses and ferns differ from gymnosperms and angiosperms in their reproductive strategies in which of the following ways?
A. Mosses and ferns rely on liquid water for fertilization, whereas angiosperms and gymnosperms do not need liquid water for fertilization
B. mosses and ferns have much later seeds than do angiosperms and gymnosperms.
C. mosses and ferns use wind pollination, whereas angiosperms and gymnosperms use insects for pollination.
D. mosses and ferns are primarily diploid in their adult (reproductive) form, whereas gymnosperms and angiosperms are primarily haploid.
E. mosses and ferns are primarily haploid in their adult form, whereas gymnosperms and angiosperms are primarily diploid.

A. mosses and ferns rely on liquid water for fertilization, whereas angiosperms and gymnosperms do not need liquid water for fertilization.

Which of the following is a characteristic of gymnosperms?
A. they are more diverse than the angiosperms
B. they are wind-pollinated
C. the gametophyte generation is dominant
D. they are water-pollinated
E. all of the above are correct.

B. they are wind-pollinated

In terms of their adaptation to living on land, how are reptiles similar to the seed plants?
A. both reptiles and seed plants became completely independent of water
B. reptiles eat plants
C. seed plants and reptiles have developed structures such as cuticles and impermeable skin to minimize desiccation
D. reptiles and seed plants have developed structures that house their gametes and protect them from the surrounding environment
E. Both c and d are correct

E. both c and d are correct

Angiosperms and gymnosperms differ from each other in that:
A. angiosperms have vascular systems, but gymnosperms do not
B. angiosperms produce seeds, but gymnosperms do not
C. angiosperms tend to rely on animal pollinators, whereas gymnosperms tend to rely on wind-pollination
D. angiosperms use pollen, whereas gymnosperms use cones
E. angiosperms have a single fertilization process, whereas gymnosperms use double fertilization

C. angiosperms tend to rely on animal pollinators, whereas gymnosperms tend to rely on wind-pollination

Anthers and stigmas are found on:
A. bryophytes
B. fungi
C. angiosperms
D. gymnosperms
E. all of the above

C. angiosperms

Which of the following is not an example of a group of angiosperms?
A. cacti
B. cherry trees
C. pine trees
D. grasses
E. orchids

C. pine trees

Over the evolutionary history of plants:
A. the sporophyte has become smaller, though more independent
B. the gametophyte and sporophyte have grown increasingly independent of each other
C. there has been a trend toward gametophyte dominance
D. there has been a trend toward gametophyte on the sporophyte
E. the gametophyte has become larger, though more dependent

D. there has been a trend toward gametophyte on the sporophyte

Which of the following comparisons and contrasts between fungi and plants is incorrect?
A. fungi cannot photosynthesize, but plants can
B. both fungi and plants use chitin as a structural stabilizer
C. fungi are heterotrophs, but plants are not
D. both fungi and plants have cell walls
E. both fungi and plants have a sexual stage in their reproductive cycle

b. both fungi and plants use chitin as a structural stabilizer

Dispersal of fungal spores is typically done by:
A. movement of cilia
B. insects
C. hummingbirds
D. wind
E. movement of flagella

D. wind

You are taking a hike down a forest trail and see the familiar sight of a mushroom on the ground. This visible portion of a fungal body is the structure also referred to as a:
A. hypha
B. fruiting body
C. thallus
D. spore sac
E. mycelium

B. fruiting body

In most cases, the relationship between roots and fungi in mycorrhizae can be best described as:
A. mycelium
B. competition
C. trickery
D. symbiosis
E. parasitism

D. symbiosis

In the human body:
A. there are more microbial cells than human cells
B. archaea can survive, but bacteria are killed by the immune system
C. bacterial cells can survive only inside the eukaryotic cells
D. the diversity of bacterial cells living in the mouth is exceeded by the diversity living on the skin
E. the bacterial cells are larger than the eukaryotic cells

A. there are more microbial cells than human cells

From and evolutionary perspective, the most basic division among all organisms on earth is among:
A. plants, animals, and bacteria
B. bacteria, archaea, and eukarya
C. plants, animals, and eukarya
D. bacteria, animals, and eukarya
E. bacteria, archaea, and protists

B. bacteria, archaea, and eukarya

Which of the following statements about prokaryotes is incorrect?
A. prokaryotes contain ribosomes
B. some prokaryotes can conduct photosynthesis
C. prokaryotes have circular pieces of DNA within their nuclei
D. prokaryotes appeared on earth prior to eukaryotes
E. prokaryotes contain cytoplasm

C. prokaryotes have circular pieces of DNA within their nuclei

"Establishing a phylogeny for bacteria is more difficult than establishing a phylogeny for plants or animals." This statement is:
A. correct, because of the quick gee ration time of bacteria
B. incorrect, because lateral gene transfer makes creating a phylogeny simpler
C. incorrect, because the metabolic diversity of bacteria makes classification impossible
D. correct, because it is difficult to obtain enough morphological data from bacteria
E. correct, because bacteria can engage in lateral gene transfer

E. correct, because bacteria can engage in lateral gene transfer

A population of Escherichia coli can double every ___ in an ideal laboratory culture.
A. 20 seconds
B. 2 minutes
C. 2 days
D. 20 minutes
E. 2 hours

D. 20 minutes

Plasmids containing genes for antibiotic resistance can be exchanged between bacterial cells in a culture by:
A. conjugation
B. artificial exchange
C. cloning
D. transduction
E. conduction

A. conjugation

Which group of organisms utilizes the largest variety of energy sources?
A. prokaryotes
B. fungi
C. protists
D. invertebrate animals
E. vertebrate animals

A. prokaryotes

Which of the following statements about antibiotics is incorrect?
A. penicillin was the first antibiotic isolated from bacteria and was widely used to fight bacterial infection
B. antibiotics help microbes compete with other microbes
C. antibiotic-resistant microbes are selected for in humans who are taking antibiotics
D. antibiotics, though effective against viruses, are not effective against bacteria
E. antibiotics are used not just in human health care but also in agriculture

D. antibiotics, though effective against viruses, are not effective against bacteria

Which of the following domains are the most closely related, in that they share a unique common ancestor?
A. archaea and bacteria
B. archaea and eukarya
C. bacteria and eukarya
D. none of the above; all three domains evolved from different ancestors
E. none of the above; all three domains are equally related to one another

B. archaea and eukarya

Unlike other microbes, archaea are able to thrive:
A. In very extreme environments
B. in all the same places that bacteria are found
C. in the human body
D. in lakes and rivers
E. in well-aerated soils

A. in very extreme enviornments

Taq polymerase:
A. is produced in viruses and bacteria
B. is denatured at temperatures above the normal human body temperature
C. is useful in catalyzing the polymerase chain reaction
D. can break down the sludge in oil refinery tanks
E. can reduce the mineral deposits from rusting pipes

C. is useful in catalyzing the polymerase chain reaction

All protists are alike in that they all are:
A. photosynthetic
B. eukaryotic
C. parasitic
D. colonial
E. multicellular

B. eukaryotic

Which of the following is not a protist?
A. paramecium
B. slime mold
C. brown alga
D. diatom
E. all of the above are protists

E. all of the above are protists

Which of the following statements about Plasmodium is correct?
A. it causes sickle-cell anemia
B. because it changes its surface proteins frequently, it is largely invisible to the immune system
C. it is transmitted by Paramecium
D. it confers resistance to malaria
E. it is most common in North America

B. because it changes its surface proteins frequently, it is largely invisible to the immune system

Many biologists do not consider viruses to be alive. Which of the following characteristics of viruses leads to the conclusion?
A. viruses lack a metabolic system
B. viruses do not respond to external stimuli
C. viruses are unable to reproduce on their own
D. all of the above are correct
E. only a and c are correct.

e. only a and c are correct

The genetic information in all viruses is:
A. DNA
B. RNA
C. protein
D. polymerase enzymes
E. DNA or RNA

E. DNA or RNA

Viruses are able to infect:
A. humans
B. plants
C. bacteria
D. birds
E. all of the above

E. all of the above

Which of the following statements about HIV is incorrect?
A. it is a virus
B. it attacks red blood cells
C. it mutates frequently
D. it is derived from a simian immunodeficiency virus
E. it contains RNA but not DNA

B. it attacks red blood cells

Unlike high plants like angiosperms and gymnosperms, all bryophytes lack:
A. cuticles
B. water transport mechanisms
C. roots
D. stomata
E. alternation of generations

C. roots

Unlike the seedless plants, seed plants:
A. undergo heterospory
B. have flowers and fruit
C. are not dependent on water for reproduction
D. have true roots and true leaves
E. have a dominant sporophyte

C. are not dependent on water for reproduction

Both mosses and ferns must have free-standing water present in order to fulfill their requirements for fertilization. Which of the following choices is the most likely explanation for why this would be?
A. both mosses and ferns have both motile male and female gametes that come together in water to fertilize
B. both mosses and ferns have motile female gametes that require water to travel to the male gametes
C. both mosses and ferns have motile male gametes that require water to travel to the female gametes
D. both mosses and ferns have gametes that require the plant to take in a lot of water in order to fulfill their photosynthetic requirements
E. none of the above choices is good explanation for why this occurs

C. Both mosses and ferns have motile male gametes that require water to travel to the female gametes

Carpels most likely developed from:
A. petals
B. endosperm
C. seed cones
D. modified leaves
E. modified stems

D. modified leaves

Petals:
A. serve to attract insects to collect and disperse fruit
B. serve to attract animals to collect and disperse pollen
C. are present to protect the seeds
D. are present mainly to protect the stamens and carpels
E. serve all of the above purposes

B. serve to attract animals to collect and disperse pollen

What is the one most obvious difference between the gymnosperms and angiosperms?
A. the gymnosperms don't form flowers, whereas angiosperms do
B. the gymnosperms have bark, whereas the angiosperms don't
C. the gymnosperms don't produce seeds, whereas the angiosperms do
D. the gymnosperms are tall, whereas the angiosperms are short
E. the gymnosperms have cones, whereas the angiosperms don't

A. the gymnosperms don't form flowers whereas angiosperms do

All of the traits below suggest that fungi are much more closely related to animals than they are to plants, EXCEPT:
A. structure and position of flagella on some gametes and spores
B. synthesis of chitin
C. DNA sequences of several genes
D. lack of cell wall
E. glycogen is the food storage molecule

D. lack of cell wall

Dispersal of fungal spores is typically accomplished by:
A. flagella movements
B. ciliated movement
C. wind
D. social insects
E. hummingbirds

C. wind

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