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Animism

Belief that objects and natural events have a spirit and concious life.

Monotheism

The belief that there's only one god.

Polytheism

The belief that there's multiple gods.

Missionary

A person who helps transmit a universalizing religion through relocation diffusion.

Pagan

A follower of a polytheistic religion in ancient times.

Autonomous

Something that does not have a central authority but shares ideas and cooperates informally.

Branch

A large and fundamental division within a religion.

Caste

The class or destinct hereditary order into which a Hindu is assigned according to religous law.

Denomination

Advision of a branch that unites a number of local congregations in a single legal and administrative body.

Diocese

The basic unit of geographic organization in the Roman Catholic Church.

Ethnic Religion

A religion with a relatively concentrated spatial distribution whose principals are likely to be based on the physical characteristics of the location.

Fundamentalism

Literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principals of a religion.

Hierarchial Religion

A religion in which a central authority exercises a high degree of control.

Sect

A relatively small group that has broken away from an established denomination.

Universalizing Religion

A religion that attempts to appeal to all people, not just those living in a particular location.

Apartheid

Laws (no longer in affect) in South Africa that physically separated different races into different geographic areas.

Balkanization

Process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities

Balkanized

A small geographic area that could not successfully be organized into one or more stable states because it was inhabited by many ethnicities with complex, long-standing antagonisms toward each other.

Blockbusting

A process by which real estate agents convince white property owners to sell their houses at low prices because of fear that black families will soon move into the neighborhood.

Centripetal Force

An attitude that tends to unify people and enhance support for a state.

Ethnic Cleansing

Process in which more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogenous region.

Ethnicity

Identity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions.

Multi-ethnic State

State that contains more than one ethnicity.

Multinational State

State that contains two or more ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities.

Nationalism

Loyalty and devotion to a particular nationality.

Nationality

Identity with a group of people that share legal attachment and personal ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality.

Nation-State

A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality.

Race

Identity with a group of people descended from a common ancestor.

Racism

Belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race.

Racist

A person who subscribes to the beliefs of racism.

Self-determination

Concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves.

Sharecropper

A person who works fields rented from a landowner and pays the rent and repays loans by turning over to the landowner a share of the crops.

Triangular Slave Trade

A practice, primarily during the eighteenth century, in which European ships transported slaves from Africa to Caribbean islands, molasses from the Caribbean to Europe, and trade goods from Europe to Africa.

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