Ch.7: Global Stratification

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1.Systems of social stratification 2.What determines social class? 3.Why is social stratification universal? 4.How do elites maintain stratification? 5.Comparative social stratification 6.Global stratification: three worlds 7.How did the world's nations become stratified 8.Maintaining Global stratification 9.Strains in the global system

Social Stratification

1.Systems of social stratification: (a)What is social stratification?
-The division of large numbers of people into layers according to their relative property, power, and prestige
-applies to both nations and to people within a nation, society, or other group
-every society amen as a group are placed above women as a group; gender cuts across all forms of social stratification

Slavery

1.Systems of social stratification: (b)What are three major systems of social stratification?
-some people own other people
-initially, based not on race, but on debt, punishment for crime, or defeat in battle
-North American slavery was gradually buttressed by a racist "ideology"

Caste System

1.Systems of social stratification: (b)What are three major systems of social stratification?
-Status is determined by birth and is lifelong

Class System

1.Systems of social stratification: (b)What are three major systems of social stratification?
-based primarily on money or material possessions
-Industrialization encourages the formation of class system

Karl Marx

2.What determines social class?
-Argued that a single factor determines social class:means of production
-"Bourgeoisie" or "Prolétariat"

Bourgeoisie

2.What determines social class?
-Karl Marx
-if you own the means of production
-contrast to "Prolétariat"

Prolétariat

2.What determines social class?
-Karl Marx
-if you don't own the means of production
-contrast to "Bourgeoisie"

Max Weber

2.What determines social class?
-Argued that three elements determine social class:
*Property
*Power
*Prestige

Kingsley Davis

3.Why is social stratification universal?
-Functionalist who argued that to attract the most capable people to fill its important positions, society must offer them greater rewards
-Melvin Tumin that if this were correct, society would be a "Meritocracy"

Wilbert Moore

3.Why is social stratification universal?
-Functionalist who argued that to attract the most capable people to fill its important positions, society must offer them greater rewards
-Melvin Tumin that if this were correct, society would be a "Meritocracy"

Meritocracy

3.Why is social stratification universal?
-with positions awarded on the bases of merit
-Melvin Tumin says about Kingsley Davis & Wilbert Mooretheory

Gaetano Moscow

3.Why is social stratification universal?
-argued that stratification is inevitable because every society must have leadership, which by definition means inequality

Conflict Theorists on Stratification

3.Why is social stratification universal?
-argue that stratification is the outcome of an elite emerging as groups struggle for limited resources

Gerhard Lenski

3.Why is social stratification universal?
-suggested a synthesis between the functionalists and conflict perspectives

Ideology

4.How do elites maintain stratification?
-A ruling class adopts an ideology:
*Beliefs about the way things ought to be that justify social arrangements

-it also controls information and uses technology
-when all else fails, it uses brute force

British class system

5.Comparative social stratification: (a)What are the key characteristics of stratification systems in other nations?
-accent reveals social class
-elite attend private schools

Former Soviet Union

5.Comparative social stratification: (a)What are the key characteristics of stratification
-communism was supposed to diminish class distinctions
-instead, it merely ushered in a different set of classes

Three Worlds

6.Global stratification: three worlds:: (a)How are the world's nations stratified?
-The model divides the world's nation into 3 groups:
****Most Industrialized
****The Industrializing
****Least Industrialized
-this layering represents relative:
*property
*power
*Prestige
-The oil rich nations are an exception

Colonialism

7.How did the world's nations become stratified
-THe process by which one nation takes over another nation, usually for the purpose of exploiting its labor and natural resources

World System Theory

7.How did the world's nations become stratified
-Economic and political connections that tie the worlds countries together

Culture of Poverty

7.How did the world's nations become stratified
-the assumption that the values and behaviors of the poor make them fundamentally different from other people,
-that these factors are largely responsible for their poverty,
-and that parents perpetuate poverty across generations by passing these characteristics to their children

Neocolonialism

8.Maintaining Global stratification: (a)How do the most industrialized nations maintain their position?
-The economic and political dominance of the least Industrialized Nations by the Most Industrialized Nations
-refers to keeping the poorer nations in debt and selling weapons to their elite

Multinational Corporations

8.Maintaining Global stratification: (a)How do the most industrialized nations maintain their position?
-Companies that operate across national boundaries
-Also called transnational corporations
-The new technology gives further advantage to the most industrialized Nations

Strains

9.Strains in the global system: (a)What strains are showing up in global stratification?
-capitalism is in crisis
-Global shift in economic (and,ultimately political) power from The West to the East

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