Chapter 12

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Research participants believed that the Asch conformity test involved a study of

visual perception

Solomon Asch reported that individuals conformed to a group's judgement of the lengths of lines

even when the group judgment was clearly incorrect

The affectionate attachment that keeps a relationship going after passionate feelings cool is known as

companionate love

Which theory best explains why our actions can lead us to modify our attitudes?

cognitive dissonance theory

Overgeneralized beliefs abut a group of people that often underlie prejudicial emotions are called

stereotypes

The discomfort we feel when two thoughts are inconsistent is called

cognitive dissonance.

Most people are likely to be suprised by the results of Milgram's intitial obedience experiment becasue

the "teachers" were more obedient than most people would have predicted

Darley and Latane observed that most university students failed to help a person having an epileptic seizure when they thought there were four other witnesses to the emergency. The student's failure to help is best explained in

a diffusion of responsibility

Which of the following persons is most clearly acting aggressively

a child who tries to hit another child with a rock

Philip Zimbardo devised a simulated prison and randomly assigned and randomly assigned college students to serve as prisoners or guards. This experiment best illustrated the impact of

role-playing on attitudes

Alexis believes that all male atheltes are self centered and sexist. Her beleifs are an example of

stereotypes

Prejudice is best defined as

an unjustifiable attitude toward a group and its members

The mere exposure effect refers to the fact that people

experience increasing attraction to novel stimuli that become more familiar

Most children believe their school is better than other schools in town. This best illustrates

ingroup bias

According to Milgram, the most fundamental lesson to be learned from his study of obedience is that

even ordinary people, who are not usually hostile, can become agents of destruction and the desire to be accepted by others is one of the strongest human motives

The tragic murder of Kitty Genovese outside her New York apartment stimulated social-psychological research on

altruism

According to social exchange theory, altruistic behavior is guided by

calculations of costs and benefits

The frustration-aggression principle suggests that anger results when

an attempt to achieve some goal is blocked

Studies of implicit attitudes indicate that prejudice is often

unconscious

A store owner charges lack customers more than Hispanic customers for the very dame merchandise. the owner is most likely engaging in

discrimination

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