History exam

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Ap European History Midterm exam chapter 18-20

The single most powerful European political ideology of the 19th century proved to be

nationalism

As a political outlook, nationalism was and is based on the relativity modern concept that a nation is composed of people who are joined together by the bonds of a common

language customs culture and history

Early 19th century nationalism directly opposed the principle upheld at the Congress of Vienna that

legitimate monarchies or dynasties rather than ethnicity provide the basis for political unity

A significant difficulty for nationalism was and is

determining which ethnic groups could be considered nations whit claims to territory and political autonomy.

Which of the following was not a region of nationalistic pressure during the 19th century

FRench rule in Belgium

Nineteenth century liberals derived some of their political ideas from the

writers of the Enlightenment

The political goals of the 19th century liberals included all of the following Excepts

distribution of land

All of the following are consistent with the goals of 19th century liberals Except:

the desire to maintain the economic restraints associated with mercantilism or the regulated economies of enlightened absolutists.

Which of the following correctly identifies the major pillars of 19th century conservatism

legitimate monarchies landed aristocracies and established churches

although their provisions were limited in scope, these three German states granted constitutions after 1815

Baden Bavaria and Wuttemberg

In December 1816 an unruly mass meeting took place near london. As a result of this disturbance Parliament

temporarily suspended haebus corpus and extended existing laws against seditious gatherings

The six acts attempted to

prevent radical leaders from agitating and to give the authorities new powers and to give the monarchy new powers and begin expansion

Louis XVII agreed to become a

constitutional monarch

The Charter provided for a

hereditary monarchy and a bicameral legislature

The major powers at the Congress of Vienna included

Russia Austria Prussia and Great Britain

The concert of Europe refers to the

new informal arrangement for resolving mutual foreign policy issues

He was placed on the Spanish throne after Napoleon's downfall and although he promised to govern according to a written constitution, he ignored his pledge

Ferdinand VII

He supported the AMerican Monroe Doctrine in 1823 and is credited with the successful conclusion of the War of Jenkins's Ear

George Canning

The Treaty of London signed in 1827 demanded

Turkish recognition of Greek Independence and that the turks allow Britain, France, and Russia to decide the future of Greece

This event sparked movements for independence from Europe domination throughout Latin America

The wars of the French Revolution, particularly Napoleon's wars

Between 1791 and 1804 this French colony achieved independence

haiti

By 1830

Most of Latin AMerica had achieved independence

He imposed an authoritarian constitution of Haiti and made himself Govenor- General for life, but he preserved formal ties with France

toussaint L'Ouverture

Tsar Alecander I turned away from reform at home and abroad took the lead in suppressing

liberalism and nationalism

Which of the following events illustrated to russian soldiers how backward and politically stifled their own nation remained

Russia's occupation of France

This officer advocated representative government and the abolition of serfdom

pestel

This secret society was more moderate; while it favored constitutional monarchy and the abolition of serfdom, it wanted to protect the interest of the aristocracy

northern society

Who succeeded Tsar Alexander I after his unexpected death in november 1825

Nicholas I

Although this revolt failed completely, it was the first rebellion in modern Russian history whose instigators had specific political goals

decembrist Revolt

who stated " there is no doubt that serfdom in its present form is a flagrant evil which everyone realizes, yet to attempt to remedy ut now would be, of coarse, an evil more disasterous

Nicholas I

The russian tsar was king of this country and frequently infringed on the constitution and quarreled with its diet

poland

He lowered rates on Government bonds to create a fund to pay an annual sum to the survivors of the emigres who forfeited land, restored the rule of primogeniture and enacted a law that punished sacrilege w/ imprisonment or death

Charles X

Which of the following is not true of the four ordinances

they eliminated any further election

Great Britain supported indepenced in latin america because it

hoped to secure commercial interests on the continent

the constitution declaring Napoleon as Emperor of France was ratified by

a plebiscite

in the 18th century, what writer used the terms Romantic and Gothic Interchangangeably

Johann Gotfried Herder

Around the times of the ROmantic Movement in Germany, many Germans sought to follow the example of which country in seeking in seeking to solve internal problems

France

The Battle of Trafalgar

anded any possibility of France invading England

In what country was canning invented

France

Immanuel Kant argued that human perception is as much a product of the mind's activity as of

sensory perception

the most extensive neo-gothic monument of central Europe was ordered by

King Ludwig II

The English Romantics directly opposed psychological tenets held by

John Locke

Not among the factors in the defeat of Napoleon was

mass reactions to his brutal suppression of local customs in the conquered countries

The Continental System extended as far east as

Russia

One of the central features of the Romantic Movement in Germany was the emergence of

nationalism

Revolutionary policies regarding what organization garnered the most domestic opposition

The French Catholic Church

Napoleon met his final defeat at the Battle of

Waterloo

Napoleon urged his brother to rule the kingdom of Westphalia in this manner

Constitutionally

Rousseau as well as the Romantics felt that

people nature and society were interrelated

in 1805 which two countries joined the British against France

Russia and Austria

the most important form of literary expression for the romantics was

poetry

Romantics were drawn to the art, literature, and architecture of

the middle ages

All of the following were characteristics of Romanticism except

the rejection of the supernatural and unfamiliar

After the Treaty of Tilsit Napoleon aimed to cripple the British by

cutting off all trade between Britain and the rest of Europe

The cheirf reason for Napoleon's fast rise to power was/were his

series of stunning victories over the enemies of France

The Organic Articles of 1802 established

The supremacy of state over church

Who was the commander who destroyed the French fleet at Abukir in 1798

Horatio Nelson

By 1812 what country had withdrawn from the continental system

Russia

Which of the following were major themes/ subjects of Romantic artists

landscapes and depictions of nature

The tracy of Campo Formio took which country out of war with France

Austria

Rain Steam and Speed shows

Industrialization as progressing and nature as all powerful

food canning was invented by

Nicholas Appert

Napoleon's Continetal System tried to defeat the British by

preventing British Trade

Napoleon worked to restore order in France in part by

Employing men from various political groups

The Treaty of Chaumont restored this group to the French throne

the bourbons

What was the name of the 1802 accord between France and Britain

The Peace of Amiens

Jean Jacques Rousseau laid out how to live a good life without being adversely influenced by society in

Emile

The most important German Philosopher of the Romantic era was

Hegel

What is the third Estate was written by

Abbe Sieyes

The second coalition against France was made up of

Russia Austria the ottoman Empire and Britain

Tsar Alexander I turned away from reform and at home and abroad took the lead in suppressing

liberalism and nationalism

The foremost social group embracing liberalism was made up by

the industrial middle class

louis XVIII agreed to become a

constitutional monarch

The growing movement of nationalism in nineteenth century Europe

was radical since it encouraged people to shift their political loyalty away form existing states and rulers

All of the following are consistent with the goals of 19th century liberals except

the desire to maintain the economic restraints associated with mercantilism or the regulated economies of enlightened absolutist

This event sparked movements for independence from European domination throughout Latin America

The wars of the French Revolution, particularly those of Napoleon.

The reform Bill of 1832 in britain primarily benefited the

upper middle class

Which of the following events illustrated to Russian soldiers how backward and politically stifled their own nation remained

Russia's occupation of France

He imposed an authoritarian constitution on Haiti and made himself Governor- General for life, but he preserved formal ties with France

Toussaint L'Ouverture

The major powers at the Congress of Vienna included

Russia Austria Prussia Great Britain

Although this revolt failed completely it was the first rebellion in modern Russian history whose instigators had specific political goals

Decembrist Revolt

Between 1791 and 1804 this colony achieved independence

Haiti

Which of the following is not true of the Four Ordinances

they eliminated any further elections

This russian officer advocated representative government and the abolition of serfdom

Pestel

The growing force of liberalism and nationalism in central Europe were exemplified by the

Burschenchaften, the student societies of Germany

The single most powerful European political ideology of the 19th century proved to be

nationalism

the most successful nationalistic European revolution in 1830 was in

Belguim

He supported the American Monroe Doctrine in 1823 and is credited with the successful conclusion of the War of Jenkins Ear

George Canning

Central to the liberal ideology in the nineteenth century was

an emphasis on individual freedom

GReat Britain supported independence in Latin AMerica because it

hoped to secure commercial interests on the continent

The Louis XVIII's Charter provided for a

hereditary monarchy and a bicarmeral legislature

Early 19th century nationalism directly opposed the principle upheld at the Congress of Vienna that

legitamate monarchies or dynasties, rather than ethnicity, provide the basis for political unity

Charles X was overthrown in 1830 July Revolution because he

supported the interests of the aristocrats and Church

Which of the following correctly identifies the major pillars of the 19th century conservatism

legitate monarchies, landed aristocracies, and established churches

The Russian Tsar was king of this country and frequently infringed on the constitution and quarreled with its diet

poland

The Polish national uprising of 1830 was crushed by

Russia

The French Revolution has often been considered a victory of the

bourgeoisie

Which of the following was one way the aristocracy attempted to limit the influence of the Third Estate.

They demanded that each estate have an equal number of representatives

Whereas Americans were motivated to protect their rights as englishmen, the French were motivated by a desire for

basic human rights and revenge

Throughout the winter and spring of 1789, the high prices for this commodity produced many riots

bread

The french revolutionary slogan neatly evoking the ideals of the rebellion was

Liberty Equality and Fraternity

The Chapelier Law

Forbade workers' associations

Prior to the revolution, the French
perlements primarily
spoke for the interests of this group

The aristocracy

Just prior to the Revolution in France the number of the poor in FRance

went up significantly

The Thermidorian reaction resulted in all of the following EXCEPT

an end to political violence

King Louis convened the Estates General in order to

raise revenues

The law of 22 prairial passed on June 10 of 1794 permitted the

conviction of counterrevolutionaries without hearing substantial evidence

As Prime Ministers of Great Britain, William Pitt the Younger

suppressed reform and popular movements

By convening the Estates General in 1789

the government all but conceded to the sovereignty of the people in their own taxation

The Treasties of Basel in March and June 1795 concluded peace with

France, Spain and Prussia

Louis XVI was condemned to death on the charge of

conspiring against the liberty of the people

The most immediate cause of the French Revolution was the

government's failure to resolve its debts and other economic problems

The sans culottes wanted above all else

relief from food shortages and high prices

By late 1794, the French army

was larger than any other in European history

Issued in August of 1793 the levee en masse was a

military requisition on the entire population

BAnds of Jesus

Murdered suspected terrorists

The core value of the republic of virtue created by the revolution was

public good over the private good

He was responsible for the introduction of the revolutionary land tax that all landowners would have to pay regardless of their social status

Charles Alexandre de Calonne

By April 1793 which of the following countries was not at war with France

Sweden

The term sans culottes was used in revolutionary France to refer to

workers

The declaration of rights of man and citizen was proclaimed by

the NAtional Constituent assembly

all of the following best summarizes the comparison of freedoms excerscised by women before 1789 versus after 1795

women had more freedom before 1789

The contrast of leadership of the French and American Revolutions is best illustrated by

Washington and Robespierre

The tennis court oath refers to an oath taken by the

NAtional Assembly to give France a constitution

During the great fear

peasants reclaimed rights and property they had lost to aristocratic resurgence

The chairs de doleances presented to the king included all of the following grievances except criticism

of the institution of monarchy as a whole

The roman Catholic Church

opened an offensive against the French Revolution

IN france, the First Estate was composed of

the clergy

Which of the following best summarizes Edmund Burke;s view of the French Revolution

He believed it was shortsighted and politically ignorant

Which of the following best descrices the form of government pursued by the National Constituent Assembly

constitutional monarchy

the second estate of the Estates General was made up of the

nobility

According to suffrage stipulations of the constitution of 1791 approximately how many of France's 25 million citizens were qualified to vote

50,000

Compared to the American Revolution, the French Revolution was

more influential in Europe as a model of rebellion

Which of the following was not part of the ideology embraced by Maximilien de Robespierre

embrace of Christianity

The Parlement of Paris declared that only

the Estates GEneral could establish new taxes

Many victims of the Reign of Terror were subject to this humane form

guillotine

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