the right to vote
a theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.
a theory or system of social organization that advocates the vesting of the ownership and control of the means of production and distribution, of capital, land, etc., in the community as a whole.
an economic system in which investment in and ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange of wealth is made and maintained chiefly by private individuals or corporations, esp. as contrasted to cooperatively or state-owned means of wealth.
a political theory advocating an authoritarian hierarchical government (as opposed to democracy or liberalism)
The monarch's (King or Queen) representative in Canada
head of state
the chief public representative of a country who may also be the head of government - PRIME MINISTER
the division of the federal government that includes the PM and the administrative departments; enforces the nation's laws
The branch of government that makes the laws
the group on ministers choses by the pm who decide government policy
A form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives
A system of government in which citizens elect representatives, or leaders, to make decisions about the laws for all the people.
A government that enforces recognized limits on those who govern and allows the voice of the people to be heard through free, fair, and relatively frequent elections.
a government that divides the powers of government between the national government and state or provincial governments
a closed political meeting
The highest ranking civil servant in a particular government department or ministry
a member of the House of Commons who is not a party leader
a legislator appointed by the party to enforce discipline
(politics) granting favors or giving contracts or making appointments to office in return for political support
the system of law courts that administer justice and constitute the judicial branch of government
the highest federal court in Canada
persons who make or amend or repeal laws provincially
representative of monarch provincially
chief electoral officer
Politically neutral civil servant who administers general elections
written plan for government
British North America Act
1867, United Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick into new nation, the Dominion of Canada
Constitutional Act 1867
outlines the structure of our government and defines the governments limit of power. outlines who has the power to make various decisions
rule of law
a state of order in which events conform to the law
a clause in the constitution that allowed the federal government or any of the provinces to opt out of some of the clauses in the charter
statue of westminister
1931; Britan's action that granted self rule to the colonies of Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa
the process of bringing the constitution home to Canada
A political party's statement of its goals and policies for the next four years. The platform is drafted prior to the party convention by a committee whose members are chosen in rough proportion to each candidate's strength. It is the best formal statement of a party's beliefs.
official party status
refers to the Canadian practice of recognizing political parties in the Parliament of Canada.
strong local traditions that divide people within a country or region
The right of all adult citizens to vote at public elections, especially for the members of a legislative body or parliament.
a lack of interest to vote, a "Whatever" attitude
the tally of each individual's vote within a given geographic area
a group's refusal to obey a law because they believe the law is immoral (as in protest against discrimination)
universal declaration of human rights
A 1946 United Nations covenant binding signatory nations to the observance of specified rights. (p. 892)
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically. create colonies
A movement to promote the independence of Slav people. Roughly started with the Congress in Prague; supported by Russia. Led to the Russo-Turkish War of 1877.
britian having 2:1 weapon ratio to other countries
a secret terrorist society in the United States early in the 20th century
Alliance between Germany, Italy, Austria Hungry
Great Britain, France, and Russia
On 6 July 1914 Germany gave Austria-Hungary a guarantee of almost unconditional support in any war arising from its dealings with Serbia following the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand. This guarantee, which encouraged the hawks in Vienna, is often referred to as a 'blank cheque'.
a final proposal or statement of conditions
Attack plan by Germans, proposed by Schliffen, lightning quick attack against France. Proposed to go through Belgium then attack France, Belgium resisted, other countries took up their aid, long fight, used trench warfare.
During the First World War the battalion-sized regiment was the only North American unit to fight in the Gallipoli campaign of 1915. Later in the war the regiment was virtually wiped out at Beaumont Hamel on July 1, 1916, the first day of the Battle of the Somme.
The man in charge of Canada's armament industry (Minister of Militia) He took advantage of his position by awarding large government contracts to his friends who were profiteers. The ministry of Militia soon became slowed down in patronage, inefficiency and confusion. Bad quality items were made and sent over for the soldiers to use. the shell committee was created and by 1917 this man was fired.
a military camp at Valcartier, Quebec
the Canadian-made weapon that tended to jam in rapid fire
canadian expeditionary force
The Canadian Expeditionary Force was the group of Canadian military units formed for service overseas in the First World War. As the units arrived in France they were formed into the divisions of the Canadian Corps within the British Army. Four divisions ultimately served on the front line.
the first Canadian to be promoted to General, lead vimy ridge - lieutenant general authur currie
battle of the marne
a World War I battle in northwestern France where the Allies defeated the Germans in 1918
a situation in which no progress can be made or no advancement is possible
battles of attrition
A battle of attrition is a military engagement in which neither side has any tactical advantage, so that the only result of the fighting is the loss of men and materiel on both sides. Battles of attrition can be very lengthy, and test both sides' ability and willingness to make good their losses.
the channeling of a nation's entire resources into a war effort
battle of ypres
april 15, 1915, flanders district. French and Canadian troops gassed (chlorine) 6000 killed, wounded or captured
battle of verdun
an example of a war of attrition, each side lost more than 400,000 men in this battle on the Western Front
battle of the somme
july 1916. British and French forces, under General Haig, slaughter over 1 million. 24 000 canadians died
a mental disorder caused by stress of active warfare
battle of vimy ridge
Canadians chosen to lead assult after 3 French failures, April 9, 1917, Canadian milestone
battle of passchendaele
was one of the worst slaughters of World War I. During the summer and fall of 1917, Allied troops fought through endless rains across fields of deep mud, to capture the small town of Passchendaele in Belgium. General Authur Currie lead, knew would suck but still took order from Haig
England and France's attempt to take over the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) by te way of Dardanelles Strait.
an aerial engagement between fighter planes
Who was Canada's most famous flying ace during the Great War?
The highest award that can be given to a soldie\ in the British Empire for an act of bravery or heroism.
American boat that was sunk by the German U-boats; made America consider entering WWI
the protection of merchant ships from U-boat-German submarine-attacks by having the ships travel in large groups escorted by warships
the treaty of brest-litovsk
The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, at Brest-Litovsk (now Brest, Belarus) between the Russian SFSR and the Central Powers, marking Russia's exit from World War I.
the hundred days
Allies launched a series of offensives against the Central Powers on the Western Front from 8 August 1918 to 11 November 1918, beginning with the Battle of Amiens. The offensive led to the final demoralisation and retreat of the German armies and the end of the First World War.
the halifax explosion
occurred on Thursday, December 6, 1917, when the city of Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, was devastated by the huge detonation of the SS Mont-Blanc, a French cargo ship, fully loaded with wartime explosives, which accidentally collided with the Norwegian SS Imo in "The Narrows" section of the Halifax Harbour.
Immigrants in Canada from the central power nations who were considered a threat to the Canadian war effort in World War 1
war measures act
gave the government sweeping powers to ensure "the security, defence, peace, order, and welfare of Canada"
military service bill
the bill that made conscription a law
opposed fighting in the war on moral or religious grounds
Borden gave this name to the wartime government he invited opposition Liberals in favour of conscription to join with him
People who campaigned for women's right to vote in the late 1800's and early 1900's.
wartime elections act
this piece of WWI legislation gave the vote to all Canadian women directly related to servicemen, while cancelling the vote for conscientious objectors and immigrants from enemy countries
a state of peace agreed to between opponents so they can discuss peace terms
president woodrow wilson
U.S president. he wanted to stay out of the war as long as possible
the war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations
treaty of versailles
the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans
paris peace conference
The great rulers and countries excluding germany and Russia met in Versailles to negotiate the repercussions of the war, such leaders included Loyd George (Britain), Woodrow Wilson (America), Cleamancu (France) and Italy. The treaty of Versailles was made but not agreed to be signed and the conference proved unsuccessful.
countries should be allowed to set up their own democratically elected government
war guilt clause
in treaty of Versailles; declared germany and austria responsible for WWI; ordered Germany to pay reparation to Allied powers
league of nations
an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations. based on collective security. only economic sactions
settlement of a dispute by a person or panel chosen to listen to both sides and come to a decision
a system for international peace
famous radio hockey announcer in the 20's. developed "he shoots, he scores!"
port of halifax.
first time canada refused to immediately help britain for imperial british war policies. british sent troops to turkey to prevent it from taking over a the port.
at this London event, representatives from British dominions formally requested autonomy (personal independance)
Canada is declared equal to Britian and autonomus.
british commonwealth of nations
(1931) Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa
a period of general fear of communists
organizations of workers with the same trade or skill
Process by which a union representing a group of workers negotiates with management for a contract
this was the peak of the Winnipeg General Strike, when a parade turned violent after an armed RCMP charged into the crowd
winnipeg general strike
Workers in building and metal trades went on strike when their employers refused to negotiate a collective bargaining procedure.
cooperative commonwealth federation
a Canadian political party founded in 1932 in Calgary, Alberta, by a number of socialist, farm, co-operative and labour groups, and the League for Social Reconstruction. In 1944, it became the first socialist government in North America (based in Saskatchewan). In 1961, it disbanded and was replaced by the New Democratic Party.
The King-Byng Affair was a Canadian constitutional crisis that occurred in 1925 when the Governor General of Canada, Lord Byng of Vimy, refused a request by the Prime Minister, William Lyon Mackenzie King, to dissolve parliament and call a general election.
womens christian temperance union
This organization was dedicated to the idea of the 18th Amendment - the Amendment that banned the manufacture, sale, or transportation of alcohol.
the action of prohibiting or inhibiting or forbidding (or an instance thereof)
persons who would deliver illegal alcohol from one place to another
first female MP. called for prison reform. founded the elizabeth fry society of canada, an organization to help woman who were improsined
Were 5 Canadian women who asked the supreme court of Canada in 1927 if the word "persons" in section 24 of the British North American Act of 1867, include women.
a Canadian women's rights activist, jurist, and author. In 1916, she became the first woman magistrate in Canada, and in the British Empire. She is best known for her contributions to Canadian feminism, specifically to the question of whether women were "persons" under Canadian law.
Appeal to the JCPC decided whether or not women were persons
an economic system in which individuals are free to compete, to earn a living, to earn a profit, and to own property
October 29, 1929; the day the stock market crashed. Lead to the Panic of 1929
buying on margin
Purching stock with a little money down with the promise of paying the balance at sometime in the future
gov't policy of using tarrifs and having rules that limit imports. This gives canadain companies advantage over foreign companies because they dont need to pay as much tax later
the new deal
introduced in BC by Premier Patullo in 1933. Promised shortened work week, increase minimum wage, increase relief payment 20%
John Meynard Keynes
Economist; support government spending to help economy
government relief payments for those who had no income
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
Fascist dictator of Italy (1922-1943). He led Italy to conquer Ethiopia (1935), joined Germany in the Axis pact (1936), and allied Italy with Germany in World War II. He was overthrown in 1943 when the Allies invaded Italy. (p. 786)
Laws that classified a jew as someone having one or more jewish grandparent
Hitler's title as Germany's dictator
Satisfying the demands of dissatisfied powers in an effort to maintain peace and stability.
battle of britian
1940-41- Series of bombing raids by luftwaffe. germanys first loss. use of radar and german cypher machines helped win.
evacuation of dunkirk
british and french troops retreated to beach, successfully evacuated accross english channel. moral victory for allies.
Sustained bombing of Britain by Nazi Germany between 1940 and 1941
Canadian troops are massacred in an attempted cross-Channel raid. allies then realized they would need naval and air support to win
battle of the atlantic
duration of the war. germany wanted to cut off supplies, allies wanted to put end to u-boat threat. canadas involvment crutial to success
Small, fast Canadian ships equipped with depth charges to explode underwater.
The allied campaign to take Italy. It took 18 months, from 1943-1944. Italy surrendered after many beach landings and other dangerous tactics.
french canadian unit which fought passed the last german line of defences before rome
The code name for the beginning plans of D-day and the invasion of France's coast
Canadian landing beach during the Normandy invasion. Canadians penetrated about 9 km inland by the end of D-Day.
hyde park declaration
canada was worried about the lend lease act affecting countries buying from canada, so US made this to say it would buy from canada
special spy training facility to train allies
national resource mobilization act
required all men to help with military but not neccessarily serve overseas
an expression of the people's will by direct ballot
custodian of aliens act
government took japanese people's items
st. louis incident
The St. Louis incident was when Jewish refugees (aprox. 900) were fleeing Germany, heading for Cuba. They were refused entry to Cuba, so they redirected their route to Halifax. When they arrived, Canada denied the ship's entry, stating that the Jews "would not make good settlers." They were sent home, and most of the refugees died in Nazi concentration camps.
the place at which the trials against the Nazis were held after the war to determine thier punishments for the war crimes that they had committed
Nazi extermination camp in Poland, the largest center of mass murder during the Holocaust. Close to a million Jews, Gypsies, Communists, and others were killed there. (p. 800)
a world dominated by two superpowers
Eastern European states under the control of the Soviet Union during the Cold War
Winston Churchill's term for the Cold War division between the Soviet-dominated East and the U.S.-dominated West. (p. 831)
President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology
policy of containment
The U.S. would not fight communism where it already existed but would not allow it to spread to democratic countries.
a United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe (1948-1952)
On Sept. 5, 1945, just after the end of the Second World War, a Russian cipher clerk named Igor Gouzenko fled the Soviet Embassy in Ottawa with 109 documents proving the existence of a Soviet spy ring in Canada. His revelations reverberated throughout the world and helped to ignite the Cold War.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania
The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea.
when President Nasser of Egypt announced his intention to build a damn in the Suez to provide power and irrigation to Egypt, the United States offered its financial support, withdrawing it when Nasser spoke with the Communists on the subject. Nasser responded by nationalizing the Suez canal, which was previously owned by British and French stockholders. This hurt Europe by crippling their oil supply, most of which came from the Persian Gulf. The French and British retaliated by striking Egypt, confident that the United States would supply them with the oil they needed while they foughtwith the Middle East. President Eisenhower refused to do so, forcing the allies to withdraw their troops. As a result, U.N. troops acted for the first time to maintain peace and order in the world. Soviets tried to interfere. Eisenhown put the Strategic Air Command on alert.
a prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States
Greeks and Turks have fought over this island for years. Now it is independent.
canadian made and invented nuclean power plants
first canadian satellite
Survivors of the Holocaust who had no homes after the war and were placed in Displaced Persons Camps.
immigration act 1952
This legislation determined the kinds of immigrants that would be allowed entry into Canada. The Act listed categories of preferred immigrants: British subjects and citizens from France and the United States. It also discriminated against certain ethnic groups, the mentally handicapped, homosexuals, and others among the "prohibited classes."
egional organization that embodies the concept of collective inter-governmental effort to strengthen economic and social development of member countries in the Asia-Pacific Region. The primary focus of all Colombo Plan activities is on human resources development.
the main force that brought Newfoundland into Confederation
canadian bill of rights
Passed in 1960. A law that guaranteed the rights of Canadians.
the most advanced fighter plane in the world at its time; cancelled by the Diefenbaker government
North American Air Defence Command, brought the defence of the U.S. and Canada to a joint command to protect against any nuclear attack from The Soviet Union
Canada-US free trade agreement, applied only to auto sector
an organization of countries formed in 1961 to agree on a common policy for the production and sale of petroleum
national energy program
a Liberal program that aimed to reduce consumption of oil, protect Canadians from rising oil prices, and make Canada self-sufficient in oil
Welcome! FIRA is a pan-Canadian alliance of individuals, organizations and institutions dedicated to the development and sharing of knowledge focusing on father involvement, and the building of a community-university research alliance supporting this work.
Canadian International Development Agency
a council consisting of permanent representatives of all the member countries of NATO
citizenship act of 1976
It defines "citizen" as "a Canadian citizen" and provides that both native-born and naturalized citizens are equally entitled to all the rights, powers and privileges and subject to all the obligations, duties and liabilities of a citizen, which are governed by numerous provincial and federal laws and the CONSTITUTION ACT.
immigration act of 1978
created in 1976 by then Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau. It focused on who should be allowed into Canada, not on who should be kept out. dividuals who could become a burden on social welfare or health services would now be refused entry
A payment made by a government to someone who does not produce a good or service in return
refugee seeking shelter and protection in one state from another state.
an agreement concerning the treatment of prisoners of war
operation desert storm
the United States and its allies defeated Iraq in a ground war that lasted 100 hours (1991)