History Avn - Test 3

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Notes for test 3 of History AVN

Which countries were the main Allied Powers?

England, France, United States, Soviet Union

Which countries were the main Axis Powers?

Germany, Italy, Japan

What defenses proved effective for Great Britain during the aerial Battle of Britain?

Britain's use of the newly invented radar system contributed to the effective defense of its homeland

WWII began with the invasion of what country and who were the invaders?

Germany's invasion of Poland on 1 September 1939 began the conflict soon known as WWII.

On March 11, 1941 the United States Congress passed the Lend-Lease Act. What was the purpose of this act and what did this act authorize the United States to do?

On 11 March 1941 the United States Congress passed the Lend-Lease Act in order to assist the Allies in fighting fascist regimes in Europe. This act authorized the country to provide supplies to any foreign country deemed "vital to the defense of the United States."

Which crucial battle reversed the whole position in the Pacific War?

Battle of Midway

On what 2 Japanese cities did the United States drop the atomic bomb in August 1945?

Hiroshima and Nagasaki

What was the mission of the Kamikaze Pilot?

Kamikaze missions were a last resort that sent pilots in aircraft heavily loaded with explosives on suicide missions against Allied powers.

Kamikaze was the Japanese word for ________.

Devine Wind

In response to the attacks on Pearl Harbor, ____________ led an air raid against Japan's capital city of Tokyo on 18 April 1942.

James Doolittle

What were the Five Freedoms of the Air discussed during the International Conference on Civil Aviation (Chicago Conference)?

1.) The freedom to fly over foreign territory without landing. 2.) The freedom to land for technical, non-traffic, non-commercial reasons. 3.) The freedom to load passengers, mail, and cargo in the airline's country of origin and disembark them in a foreign country. 4.) The freedom to take on board passengers, mail and cargo in a foreign country and to transport them to the airline's country of origin. 5.) The freedom to transport passengers, mail, or cargo from one foreign country to another foreign country beyond the airline's country.

What led to the airways crisis in the 1950s?

The heavy use of airways by commercial, private and military planes during the 1950s. The facilities and equipment along the airways were not adequate for the volume and type of traffic.

How did the Allies respond to the soviet blockade of Berlin?

The Berlin Airlift was the western allies response to the Soviet blockade of Berlin - Over 2.3 tons of food and supplies were delivered to West Berlin.

How did the Soviets react to the Allies response?

Soviet planes occasionally harassed the airlift transports.

What was Project Paperclip?

A program whereby German rocket scientists and engineers could come to the United States to live and work.

The Soviet Union launched the world's first orbiting satellite on October 4, 1957. This was the first man-made object to circle the globe. What was it called?

Sputnik

On 14 October 1947, test pilot ___________ , flew the Bell X1 rocket plne through the sound barrier.

CPT Chuck Yeager

What aircraft inaugurated the world's first regular passenger jet service?

The de Havilland Comet from Great Brittain

What was the name of the first U.S. satellite and what did it discover?

The Explorer 1, and it descovered the Van Allen radiation belt.

What did the Explorer 1 satelite discover?

the Van Allen radiation belt

What is the purpose of the International Civil Aviation Organization?

To ensure safety, encourage civil aircraft design, encourage the development of airways, airports and air navigation facilities, and to promote fair .safe, efficient, and economical operation of international airlines.

The Space Race was primarily between what 2 countries?

The United States and Soviet Union

What were the 5 major U.S. human space flight projects between 1957 and 1989?

Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Shuttle

What were the major objectives of the Gemini project?

The major objectives of the Gemini project were to gain experience in longer flights, conduct extra vehicular activities (EVAs), and practice rendezvous and docking in space.

The ________ Project was designed to reach the moon.

Apollo

73seconds after liftoff what failed causing the Space Shuttle Challenger to explode?

Failure of the O-ring on the solid rocket booster

What were the 5 Soviet human space flight programs?

Vostok, Voshkod, Soyuz, Salyut, Mir

Who performed the first untethered spacewalk?

Bruce McCandless

____________ was elected to be a part of the first group of USSR cosmonauts. At age 27 he became the first human to orbit the earth.

Yuri Gagarin

Who was the first human to orbit the earth?

Yuri Gagarin

Who led Lockheed's "Skunk Works" during the development of the U-2 and SR-71.

Clarence "Kelly" Johnson

What aircraft first photographed missile sites in Cuba, leading to the Cuban Missile Crisis?

U-2

Who led a mission to stop Poland from blowing up a bridge to Germany?

Bruno Dilley

What is Bruno Dilley known for?

Leading a mission to stop Polan from blowing up a bridge to Germany.

Who was the first British ace to hit 100 kills?

Werner Molders

What was "The Blitz"?

57 continuous nights of German bombing of England

Where was the first aircarier based attack on naval forces?

the Italian port of Taranto

Who performed the first aircarier attack on a naval force?

the French

Who were the only women aces ever?

Lilya Litvjak and Katya Budanova

Who is the highest scoring Russian Ace of WWII?

Lev Shestakov

Who is the highest scoring German Ace of WWII?

Eric Harmann with 352 kills

What were the 2 main German terror weapons of WWII?

The V1 "Buzz Bomb" and the V-2 ballistic missles.

Where were the V-2 (A-4) ballistic missles designed at?

Pita Munda

What is Pita Munda known for?

It's the cite where Germany was designing and building the V-2 (A-4) ballistic missles.

Who retired from the US Airforce and went to China to help train a Chinese Airforce?

Claire L Chennault

What is Claire L Chennault known for?

He retired from the US Airforce and went to China to help build a Chinese Airforce.

What was the purpose of the Naval Expansion Act?

Mainly to build aircraft carriers and add 25,000 aircraft.

Why did Japan attack America?

We imposed an Oil Embargo on Japan.

How effective were the Kamikaze attacks?

Tactically, not very effective. Morale-wise, very effective.

What aircraft dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima?

Enola Gay

What aircraft dropped the atomic bomb on Nagasaki?

Box Car

What was the name of the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima?

Little boy

What was the name of the atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki?

Fat Man

What aircraft flew over Hiroshia with scientific instruments when the atomic bomb was dropped?

Great Artist

What aircraft flew over Hiroshia to take photos when the atomic bomb was dropped?

Necessary Evil

Who wrote "From the Earth to the Moon"?

Jules Verne

What Jules Verne novel inspired many rocket scientist?

"From the Earth to the Moon"

Who wrote "The First Men in the Moon"?

H.G. Wells

What novel did H.G. Wells write?

"The First Men in the Moon"

Who is the "Father of Space Flight"?

Konstantin Tsiolkovsky

What is Konstantin Tsiolkovsky known for?

"Father of Space Flight", theorized rockets to leave earths gravity, first to theorize a space elevator

Who built the first liquid fueled rocket?

Robert Goddard

What is Robert Goddard known for?

Building the first liquid fueled rocket

Who is Wernher von Braun?

German engineer designing V-2 rockets and surrendered to the US to come work on the Juno 1 rocket and Explorer 1 satelite.

What was the US plan to deliver nuclear bombs during the Cold War?

B-52 "Stratofortress"

What was the Russian plan to deliver nuclear bombs during the Cold War?

R7 ballistic missles

What was the name of the dog Sputnik 2 launched into orbit?

Laikah

What does NASA stand for?

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Who was the first to do a tethered space walk?

Alexei Leonov

Who were the first men to land on the moon?

Armstrong, Collins, Aldrin

Who was the candy bomber?

Gail Halvorsen

What is Gail Halvorsen known for?

Dropping candy to German kids during Cold War blockade.

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