***Microbiology Chapter 23***

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A patient exhibiting arthritis secondary to Lyme disease is likely in which phase of the infection?

third

Lyme disease is caused by ____________ and is transmitted by __________.

B. burgdorferi; Ixodes

Based on the concept map, which of the following must happen during Lyme disease?

There is an adaptive immune response.

Which of the following cell populations become plasma cells?

B cells

A patient has a skin ulcer from which a gram-negative bacillus is cultured. This patient has regional lymph nodes that are enlarged and filled with pockets of pus. He reports keeping pet rabbits. Which of the following is a possible diagnosis?

tularemia

In which of the following North American locations would you expect to find the highest incidence of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi?

Atlantic coast

Which statement regarding the emerging viral hemorrhagic fevers is FALSE?

A person may contract Lassa fever after exposure to the urine of an infected rodent.
Hemorrhagic viruses cause profuse bleeding, and this helps to spread the infection.
The symptoms of infection by hemorrhagic viruses are initially mild.

Later symptoms of hemorrhagic viral infection include low-grade fever and severe, crippling joint pains.

Which disease, resulting in damage to heart muscle or the nerves controlling peristalsis in the gastrointestinal tract, is transmitted by the reduviid bug?

Chagas' disease

The development of which disease is promoted by mosquito-borne malarial infections?

Burkitt's lymphoma

As a child, Jamie suffered from rheumatic fever, which caused some major damage to one of her heart valves. She is OK, in general. However, she's been advised against getting body piercings, and her dentist gives her antibiotics before performing some dental procedures. What is the concern?

Jamie is more likely to develop subacute bacterial endocarditis.

Cats have been identified as an essential part of the life cycle for the protozoan that causes which disease?

toxoplasmosis

Which of the following statements correctly describes the disease schistosomiasis?
Soil is the reservoir.
This disease causes illness, but it is usually self-limiting and not fatal.
There is no treatment.

It can cause a variety of different problems, including urinary, intestinal, and neurological symptoms, depending on the particular species.

Which of the following is FALSE concerning Clostridium species?
They grow well in damaged tissues that are necrotic and have impaired blood flow.
They can cause gas gangrene and septicemia.
They grow only in anaerobic environments.

Their main reservoir is rabbits.

Which of the following statements about sepsis is FALSE?
Lymphangitis may occur.
Symptoms include fever and decreased blood pressure.
It may be aggravated by antibiotics.
It can be treated with antibiotics.

It usually is caused by gram-positive bacteria.

Which of the following pairs is mismatched?
subacute bacterial endocarditis - alpha-hemolytic streptococci
acute bacterial endocarditis - Staphylococcus aureus
pericarditis - Streptococcus pyogenes
Burkitt's lymphoma - Epstein-Barr virus

puerperal sepsis - Staphylococcus aureus

Which of the following is NOT a recognized form of anthrax?
inhalationial
gastrointestinal
cutaneous
None of the answers are correct; all of these are recognized forms of anthrax

septic

Which of the following is NOT typically treated with penicillin?
anthrax
rat-bite fever
pericarditis
animal bites

puerperal sepsis

Which of the following statements about tularemia is FALSE?
It may be transmitted by arthropods.
It may be transmitted by direct contact.
It is caused by Francisella tularensis.
The most common reservoir is rabbits.

It occurs only in California.

Which of the following is a symptom of brucellosis?

undulant fever

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of Bacillus anthracis?
found in soil
forms endospores
is aerobic
is gram-positive

produces endotoxins

The symptoms of gas gangrene are due to all of the following EXCEPT
necrotizing exotoxins.
proteolytic enzymes.
microbial fermentation.
hyaluronidase.

endocarditis

Which of the following bacterial infections CANNOT be transmitted by dog or cat bites?
Pasteurella multocida
Bartonella henselae
Fusobacterium
None of the answers is correct; all of these bacterial infections can be transmitted by dog or cat bites.

Streptobacillus

Which of the following pairs is mismatched?
malaria - Anopheles (mosquito)
dengue - Aedes (mosquito)
epidemic typhus - Pediculus (louse)
Rocky Mountain spotted fever - Dermacentor (tick)

encephalitis - Ixodes (tick)

Unsanitary and crowded conditions increase the incidence of all of the following diseases EXCEPT
relapsing fever.
epidemic typhus.
plague.
endemic murine typhus.

Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

A patient presents with inflammation of the heart valves, fever, malaise, and subcutaneous nodules at joints. The recommended treatment is

anti-inflammatory drugs.

Which of the following statements about puerperal sepsis is FALSE?
It is caused by health care personnel.
Its frequency of occurrence has decreased because of antibiotics and aseptic techniques.
It is a complication of abortion or childbirth.
It begins as a focal infection.

It is transmitted from mother to fetus.

Which of the following statements about rheumatic fever is FALSE?
It is an inflammation of the joints.
It is an inflammation of the heart.
It is a complication of a group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection.
The incidence has declined in the last ten years.

It is rarely fatel, even when untreated.

Which of the following pairs is mismatched?
Bacillus gram-positive endospore-forming rods
Rickettsia intracellular parasite
Brucella gram-negative aerobic rods
None of the pairs is mismatched.

Francisella gram-positive facultatively anaerobic pleomorphic coccirods

Which of the following pairs is mismatched?

Borrelia - relapsing fever
Spirillum - rat-bite fever
Yersinia - plague
Streptobacillus - rat-bite fever

Pasteurella - cat-scratch disease

Human-to-human transmission of plague is usually by

the respiratory route.

A characteristic symptom of plague is

swollen lymph nodes.

A predisposing factor for infection by Clostridium perfringens is

gangrene.

Which of the following is NOT a zoonosis?
tularemia
anthrax
brucellosis
Hantavirus infection

puerperal sepsis

Arthropods can serve as a reservoir for all of the following diseases EXCEPT

epidemic typhus.
malaria.
plague.
yellow fever.

brucellosis.

Which of the following pairs is mismatched?
brucellosis - a temperature of 40°C each evening
toxoplasmosis - congenital brain damage
tularemia - a localized infection appearing as a small ulcer
Borrelia - rash and flulike

cat-scratch disease - malignant pustule developing into septicemia

Which of the following leads to all the others?

bacterial growth in endothelial cells

Which of the following pairs is NOT correctly matched for Gram reaction?
Lyme disease - gram-negative
Rocky Mountain spotted fever - gram-negative
anthrax - gram-positive
tularemia - gram-negative

Ehrlichia - gram-positive

Which of the following is evidence that the arthritis afflicting children in Lyme, Connecticut, was due to bacterial infection?

treatable with penicillin

Which of the following statements about group B streptococci is false?
They cause gram-positive sepsis.
They cause neonatal sepsis.
They are classified as Streptococcus agalactiae.
They are present in healthy carriers.

They cause strep throat.

Which of the following can be transmitted from an infected mother to her fetus across the placenta?

cytomegalovirus

Which of the following is NOT treated with antibiotics?
tularemia
plague
Lyme disease
anthrax

ebola

Which of the following produces a permanent carrier state following infection?

cytomegalovirus

Epstein-Barr virus has been implicated in all of the following EXCEPT
Burkitt's lymphoma.
Hodgkin's disease.
infectious mononucleosis.
nasopharyngeal carcinoma

endocarditis

Which of the following is NOT transmitted in raw milk?
listeriosis
brucellosis
anthrax
All of these can be transmitted in raw milk.

toxoplasmosis

Which of the following statements about toxoplasmosis is FALSE?
It is caused by a protozoan.
The reservoir is cats.
It can be congenital.
It is transmitted by the gastrointestinal route.

It is a severe illness in adults.

Which of the following pairs does NOT apply to Chagas' disease?
vector - kissing bug
reservoir - rodents
treatment - nifurtimox
causative agent - Trypanosoma cruzi

diagnosis of acute phase - serological tests for antibodies

Which of the following is NOT caused by a bacterium?

relapsing fever
epidemic typhus
plague
tickborne typhus

malaria

Which of the following pairs regarding the epidemiology of malaria is mismatched?
diagnosis - presence of merozoites
etiology - Plasmodium
found in liver - sporozoites
vector - Anopheles

treatment - antibiotics

Which of the following CANNOT be transmitted to humans from domestic cats?

Chagas' disease

You advise your pregnant friend to give her cat away because she could contract

toxoplasmosis

Scrapings from a patient's rash reveal cercariae. The disease is most likely

swimmer's itch.

Which of the following is NOT controlled by a mosquito eradication program?
chikungunya fever
yellow fever
malaria
dengue fever

schistosomiasis

Netting modified for sandflies should also be useful in preventing malaria

True

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