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Tuberculosis is the name of the ___________ caused by the _________ Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

disease; bacterium

What can you deduce from the treatment strategy for M. tuberculosis infection?

The organism has some innate resistance to antibiotics.

Which of the following could be true of tuberculosis of the kidney?
The patient would likely have a positive skin test.
The disease could be subsequent to a normal primary infection.
The patient would likely be infected with MDR TB or XDR TB.
The disease could be subsequent to a reactivated latent infection.

All of the above could be true.

An individual presents with a pinkish red rash and a red sore throat. Gram-positive cocci are cultured from a throat swab. The cocci are growing in chains. Which of the following is the most likely conclusion?

The patient has scarlet fever.

Which of the following bacterial pneumonias would you NOT treat with tetracycline?
chlamydial pneumonia
psittacosis
mycoplasmal pneumonia

Haemophilus influenzae pneumonia

Which of the following is NOT caused by infection of the upper respiratory tract?
streptococcal pharyngitis
diphtheria
scarlet fever

whooping cough

Which of the following statements concerning Pneumocystis jirovecii is FALSE?
Cysts are found in the lining of the alveoli.
P. jirovecii has characteristics of both fungi and protozoa but is now commonly classified as a fungus.
Infection usually causes few or no symptoms if the individual is healthy.

P. jirovecii trophozoites produce sexually by fission.

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of tuberculosis infection?
The adaptive immune response is mostly cell mediated, because Mycobacterium tuberculosis lives and reproduces inside macrophages.
An individual could become infected by standing next to an infected person who is coughing.
Treatment requires a minimum of 6 months of antibiotic therapy.

A TB diagnosis can be rapidly confirmed because the pathogen grows quickly.

Which description of melioidosis is correct?

The disease may appear as pneumonia, as septic shock, or as abscesses that resemble necrotizing fasciitis. The organism is commonly found in soil.

Which statement regarding influenza (flu) is true?

Antigenic shift can occur because the genome is in several pieces.

Which statement regarding normal microbiota of the human respiratory system is FALSE?
The trachea normally may contain a few bacteria.
The ciliary escalator in the bronchial tubes keeps the lower respiratory tract nearly sterile.
Potentially pathogenic microorganisms are present in nonsterile portions of the respiratory tract but usually do not cause disease.

The upper respiratory tract is mostly sterile.

The lower respiratory tract is protected by all of the following EXCEPT

mucous secretions.
IgA antibodies.
the ciliary escalator.
alveolar macrophages.

competition with the normal flora of the lungs.

Which of the following is mismatched?
pharyngitis sore throat
sinusitis headache and nasal mucous
laryngitis voice loss
otitis media earache

epiglottitis sore throat

The patient is suffocating because of an inflamed epiglottis. What is the etiology of the symptoms?

Haemophilus

A patient who presents with red throat and tonsils can be diagnosed as having

The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided.

It is common for a normal, healthy individual to carry potentially pathogenic organisms in their upper respiratory tract.

True

The patient has a sore throat. What is the etiology of the symptoms?

The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided.

Which of the following requires treatment with both antibiotics and antitoxins?

diphtheria

Which one of the following is an irregular, gram-positive rod?

Corynebacterium diphtheriae

Which one of the following produces the most potent exotoxin?

Corynebacterium diphtheriae

Which one of the following causes a disease characterized by a red rash?

Streptococcus

The patient is suffocating because of the accumulation of dead tissue and fibrin in her throat. What is the etiology of the symptoms?

Corynebacterium

A patient has a paroxysmal cough and mucus accumulation. What is the etiology of the symptoms?

Bordetella

Which of the following does NOT cause otitis media?
Haemophilus influenzae
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Moraxella catarrhalis
Streptococcus pyogenes

Coxiella burnetii

All of the following are true of the common cold EXCEPT
complications include laryngitis and otitis media.
it is transmitted via aerosols and contact.
it is caused by rhinoviruses and coronaviruses.
the duration of symptoms is approximately one week.

early treatment will drastically reduce the disease symptoms.

Which of the following statements about mycoplasmal pneumonia is TRUE?

Treatment is tetracyclines.

Which of the following is mismatched?

Haemophilus - gram-negative rod
Bordetella - gram-negative pleomorphic rod
Mycobacterium - acid-fast rod
Corynebacterium - gram-positive rod

Mycoplasma - gram-positive pleomorphic rod

All of the following can lead to a positive tuberculin skin test EXCEPT
vaccination.
previous tuberculosis infection.
current tuberculosis infection.
immunity to tuberculosis.

being near someone with tuberculosis.

Which of the following diseases is NOT correctly matched to its vaccine?
influenza viruses grown in embryonated eggs
pneumococcal pneumonia capsular polysaccharides
whooping cough heat-killed bacteria
diphtheria toxoid

tuberculosis toxoid

Which of the following is mismatched?
epiglottitis - Haemophilus
psittacosis - Chlamydia
whooping cough - Bordetella
melioidosis - Burkholderia

Q fever - Rickettsia

Which one of the following causes a disease characterized by the catarrhal, paroxysmal, and convalescent stages?

Bordetella pertussis

Infection by which of the following results in the formation of Ghon complexes?

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

All of the following are used as first-line drugs for treating tuberculosis EXCEPT
pyrazinamide.
ethambutol.
rifampin.
isoniazid.

fluoroquinolones.

Infection by which of the following is often confused with viral pneumonia?

Mycoplasma

Soil is a reservoir for all of the following EXCEPT
melioidosis.
histoplasmosis.
coccidioidomycosis.
blastomycosis.

Q fever.

A patient has pneumonia. Gram-negative rods are cultured on nutrient agar from a sputum sample. The etiology is

Burkholderia pseudomallei.

Which of the following is mismatched?
Mycoplasma walking pneumonia
Chlamydophila psittacosis
Burkholderia melioidosis
Coxiella Q fever

Mycobacterium whooping cough

Which of the following statements regarding tuberculosis is FALSE?
At least 1/3 of those who are TB-positive are also HIV-positive.
Treatment requires at least six months of antibiotic therapy.
Nearly 1/3 of the worlds population is infected with tuberculosis.
It is responsible for nearly 2 million deaths per year.

Nearly 1/3 of the worlds population shows symptoms of tuberculosis.

A patient has fever, difficulty breathing, chest pains, fluid in the alveoli, and a positive tuberculin skin test. Gram-positive cocci are isolated from the sputum. The patient most likely has

pneumococcal pneumonia.

Which one of the following produces small "fried-egg" colonies on medium containing horse serum and yeast extract?

Mycoplasma

Legionella is transmitted by

airborne transmission.

The most effective means of preventing influenza is

annual vaccination.

The primary victims of the influenza pandemic of 1918-1919 were

young adults.

Which of the following is responsible for epidemics of respiratory disease in infants?

respiratory syncytial virus

Which of the following is NOT a typical symptom of influenza?
muscle aches
chills
headache
fever

diarrhea

Which of the following microorganisms causes symptoms most like tuberculosis?

Histoplasma

Which of the following causes opportunistic infections in AIDS patients?
Mucor
Aspergillus
Pneumocystis
Rhizopus

All of the answers are correct.

Which of the following diseases is NOT correctly matched to its reservoir?
tuberculosis - cattle
histoplasmosis - soil
pneumocystis - humans
psittacosis - parakeets

coccidioidomycosis - air

Which of the following is an opportunistic pathogen?

Pneumocystis

Which of the following etiologic agents results in the formation of abscesses?

Blastomyces

Inhalation of arthroconidia is responsible for infection by which of the following organisms?

Coccidioides

All of the following are classified as fungi EXCEPT
Pneumocystis.
Blastomyces.
Coccidioides.
Histoplasma.

Mycobacterium.

Microscopic examination of a lung biopsy shows thick-walled cysts. What is the etiology of the symptoms?

Pneumocystis

Microscopic examination of a lung biopsy shows spherules. What is the etiology of the symptoms?

Coccidioides

Which of the following is NOT an intracellular parasite?
Coxiella
RSV
Chlamydophila
Influenzavirus

Coccidioides

Coccidioides immitis causes Valley fever, a disease that is endemic to the Mississippi Valley.

False

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