Sociology

Created by Edlund-L 

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empirical evidence

is what people in a society agree is true

Elijah Anderson in article 14

the code of the street is actullay a culture adaptation to a profound lack of faith in the police and the judicial system

sociology is just common sense

false

an example of nonmaterial culture would be the types of vehicals people use to get around

false

according to sociologists, human behavior reflects our personal "free will"

false

conflict theorists see society : cooperative and harmonious

false

subculture is more at odds with: the dominant than counterculture

false

the primary characteristics of culture are:

culture is learned, cumulative, shared and ever- changing (T)

studying other socities is a good way to learn about our own way of life

True

the idea that reality is socially constructed means: to most people, nothing seams real at all

false

according to Durkheim, as division of labor becomes more specialized

individual's become more independant upon others

steve's research project is aimed at understanding the relationship between after-school employment and GPA. Steve is collecting data from students on the number of hours they work outside of school and their grade

quantitative research

one of the common criticisms of functionalists theory is that

functionalists are to focused on order and stability and fail to understand social change and inequality

which of the following theorists saw property as the foundation of all classes(as opposed to Marx's economic veiwpoint)

Max Weber

Most sociologists would agree with which of the following statements?

Nature affects human development, but nurture is more significant.

Bill is a sociologist who studies poverty. He understands that an individual's poverty status is the result of larger economic situations and unemployment rates in the local community rather than the individual's personal problem. Bill is utilizing his...

Sociological imagination

The social class, as identified by Marx, includes the majority of workers who depend on wages for survival and who make up the "working class."

Proletariat

____________, who coined the term sociology, is also known as the "father of sociology."

August Comte

The view that people attach subjective meanings to their actions is a hallmark of which theory?

Symbolic interactionism

Which of the following is the best definition of "sociology"?

Sociology is the systematic study of social interaction at a variety of levels.

Which of the following statements is best associated with Cooley's "looking-glass self"?

Children acquire a sense of self through their interactions with others and interpretations of how others view them.

Which of the following is not one of the key characteristics of social interaction?

Social interaction is similar across time and place.

Gender, age and ethnicity are examples of_______________.

ascribed statuses and master statuses

With more than two million prisons, the U.S. prison system employs large numbers of workers and contributes to many independent and private contracts. This is a _________ of incarceration.

dysfunction

Which of the following agents of socialization is the most influential?

Parents

Troy tries to balance appropriate rules with emotional support for his daughters. For example, Troy encourages his daughters to work hard and rewards their work with complements and occasional gifts. Troy's parenting style is _____________.

authoritarian

1) The public's attitude toward homosexuality has been moving toward greater acceptance

false

2) Stratification systems are either open or closed. No stratification system can be both

false

3) During the 20th century, U.S. society experienced profound changes in sexual attitudes and practices

true

4) Women and men are equally likely to be poor

false

5) According to Margaret Anderson, African American women are more likely than white women to reject gender stereotypes for women

true

6) All societies have some form of social stratification

true

7) While the sexual revolution increased sexual activity overall, it changed behavior among men more than among women

false

8) Homosexuality and heterosexuality are mutually exclusive, meaning that all people fall into one category or the other

false

9) Like race or social class, gender is a major component of social stratification

true

10) Bureaucracy places more importance on personal ties than on technical competence

false

11) The Williams family cannot afford to send their children to band camp. Based on this example, the Williams family is living in?

Relative Poverty

12) Which concept refers to genitals that distinguish females or males?

Primary sex characteristics

13) The majority of evidence indicates that sexual orientation is rooted in?

human biology, although social experience plays some role

14) Anna was denied service at a local bar because she is female. This is an example of?

Sexism

Gretchen is conductinga research project and is interviewing respondents about their fertility history. on the first day the respondent claimed to have 3 children. the next day the same respondent claimed to only have 2 children. this is a problem with?

RELIABILITY

When a sociological researcher interviews workers about their opinions of their work conditions the researcher is engaging in what stage of research?

COLLECTING RESEARCH

Culteral lag refers to the fact that______

some cultural elements change more quickly than others.

Which of the following is not a major strength of survey research?

answer: high response rates incorrect: inexpensive, anonymous, simple, fast

the following is ture regarding social research being value free.

although the topic selection may be subjective, the research must maintain objectivity when collecting, analyzing, and interpretting data.

Kevin views society as composed group competing for limited resources. patrick views society as interrelated parts.

KEvin is a conflict theory and patrick is Functionalist.

_____ is a key value to U.S. culture

Answers : equal oppurtunity, democracy, free enterprise, raracism and group superiority.

Which sociological research method is best used to study what cannot be seen?

survey

KarlMarxx believed that the key element in understanding human history and social change is to under stand ____

class conflict

. SYmbols, Values, norms, and beliefsare examples of _____

non material culture

article 7 of george ritzer said a symbol of america consuptuism is _____

mcdonalds, walmart,credit cards

a sociological perspective encourages individuals to ______

challenge common sence myths

which of the following is not an accurate sociological statment about culture?

culture is similar across society

_____ concentrates on the relationship between individuals charateristics;_____ examines the relationships between institutional characteristics.

none

race

refers to groups of people who have differences and similarities in biological traits deemed by society to be socially significant

ethnicity

refers to shared cultural practices, perspectives, and distinctions that set apart one group of people from another

prejudice

has to do with the inflexible and irrational attitudes and opinions held by members of one group about another

dicrimination

refers to behaviors directed against another group

Minority Groups

Racial and ethnic groups whose members are especially disadvantaged in a given society

Nuclear family

(traditional): mother & father and biological children

Extended

extentions outside their nuclear family

Cult of Domesticity

womenhood duties- kids and houshold

Diversity in American Families

o Latino family- family relationships take precedence over individual choice
 Now the largest minority group in the U.S.
o African American families- rely on extra familial networks for support
 Black children are more likely to grow up with one parent
• Factors:
1.Post-ponement of marriage
2.Out-of-wedlock births
3.Male unemployment
o Gay and lesbian families- changing socio-cultural norms, " post-modern"

Divorce

o Increasing....why?
 Individualism is on the rise
 Romantic love fades
 Women are less dependent on men

types of capital

economical, social and cultural

Deviance

behavior

Crime

wrong doing in the world, illegal and punishable

Discredited

ex. something that can't be hidden

Discreditable

ex. hiding from an STD

Types of Crime

againts person or property

Court

Determine the guilt or innocence of the accused

Punishment

Any action designed to deprive a person of things of value (including liberty) because of some offense the person is thought to have committed.
o Four goals:
Retribution
Deterrence (general and specific)
Incapacitation
Rehabilitation

correlation

doesn't gaurantee a certain effect, it's an indication that one factor might be a cause for another factor

caustion

cause and effect

ethics

a system of values or principles that guides one's behavior

culture

a set of beliefs, traditions ans practices. passed on in society

Which of the following is not a demographic factor that might affect social mobility?

personal connections

The concept of "feminization of poverty" refers to the fact that in the United States?

women make up an increasing percentage of the poor

Ritzer's Mcdonaldization of society most aligns with which of the following major sociological perspectives?

Structural functionalism

According to the notes which of the following social classes has the largest percentage of Americans within it?

Middle class

Looking back over U. S. history we see a general trend by which women?

Have gained power and opportunities

Which of the following categories of factors that affect social mobility is characterized by the changes in the economy, changes in the number of available jobs and immigration?

structural

The concept "bureaucracy" refers to

An organizational model rationally designed to perform tasks efficiently

A persons socioeconomic status (SES) is determined by?

All of the above

Which of the following concepts refers to stigmatizing anyone who is not heterosexual as "queer"?

Heterosexism

The historical replacement of caste systems with class systems?

Demonstrates the progress that societies worldwide have made to reduce stratification.

Family and close friends are examples of what?

primary groups

according to Davis and Moore, a system of unequal rewards increases productivity by

all of these are correct

Nicholas was a legal secretary. He decided to continue his education and earn his law degree. Nicholas is now a criminal attorney. Nicholas has experienced _______________.

vertical mobility

Which of the following dimensions of stratification is known as the ability to carry out your will and impose it upon others?

power

In which of the following states is gay marriage currently not allowed?

Oregon

Queer theory is a growing body of knowledge asserting that _________________________.

there is a heterosexual bias in U.S. society

If your believe that people living in central cities are likely to be poor because there are fewer jobs available in these areas, you are in agreement with _________________________.

William Julius Wilson

Which type of feminism accepts the basic organization of U.S. society, but seeks to give women same rights and opportunities as men?

liberal feminism

_____________________ is a category of work filled primarily by women.

Pink-collar jobs

Unlike income, wealth can be _____________________.

passed on to the next generation

While the U.S. economy has expanded since the late 1960's, income inequality has ________.

increased

Which of the following is not a component of Ritzer's "McDonaldization" of society?

creativity

tephanie's parents were factory workers. Stephanie, however, earned a doctorate degree and now works in Congress. Stephanie has experienced ______________.

intergenerational mobility

The concept of gender refers to __________________________________________.

the personal traits and social positions that members of a society attach to being female or male.

Stanley Milgrim's research, in which subjects used a "shock generator", showed____________.

are surprisingly likely to follow the orders of not only real authority figures but also groups of ordinary individuals

are surprisingly likely to follow the orders of not only real authority figures but also groups of ordinary individuals

secondary group

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