AP Psychology Chapter 7 MIDTERM

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getting information into memory

The process of encoding refers to...

retrieval

The proces of getting information out of memory is called...

long term

The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system is called ____ memory.

sutomatic processing

Encoding that occurs with no effort or a minimal level of conscious attention is known as...

rehearsal

In an effort to remember how to spell "rhinoceros," Samantha spells the word aloud 30 times. She is using a technique known as...

encoding failure

Our inability to remember information presented in the seconds just before we fall asleep is most likely due to...

the spacing effect

Jill performs better on foreign language vocabulary tests if she studies the material 15 minutes every day for 8 days than if she crams for 2 hours the night before the test. This illustrates what is known as...

serial position

The tendency to immediately recall the first and last items in a list better than the middle items is known as the ____ effect.

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acoustic encoding

Superior memory for rap lyrics that include the most rhymes best illustrates the value of...

memory aid

A mnemonic device is a...

the organization of information into meaningful units

Chunking refers to...

iconic

For a fraction of a second after the lightning flash disappeared, Emma retained a vivid mental image of its ragged edges. Her experience most clearly illustrates the nature of ____ memory.

echoic

Sounds and words that are not immediately attended to can still be recalled a couple of seconds later because of our ____ memory.

7

Our immediate short-term memory for new material is limited to roughly __ bits of information.

an increase in a neuron's firing potential

Long term potentiation refers to...

implicit

Remembering how to solve a jigsaw puzzle without any conscious recollection that one can do so best illustrates ____ memory.

explicit

Conscious memory of factual information is called _____ memory.

implicit; explicit

Cerebellum is to ____ memory as hippocampus is to ____ memory.

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recognition

An eyewitness to a grocery store robbery is asked to identify the suspects in a police lineup. Which test of memory is being utilized?

retrieval cues

Words, events, places, and emotions that trigger our memory of the past are called...

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deja vu

The eerie sense of having previously experienced a situation is known as...

happy; happy

Information learned while a person is ____ is best recalled when that person is ____.

mood-congruent theory

The association of sadness with memories of negative life events contribute to...

encoding failure

Jay can't remember Joe Vescovo's name because he wasn't paying attention when Joe was formally introduced. Jay's poor memory is best explained in terms of...

retrieval

Julie is embarrassed because she momentarily fails to remember a good friend's name. Julie's poor memory most likely results from failure in...

proactive interference

The disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information is called...

retroactive interference

After studying biology all afternoon, Bill is having difficulty remembering details of the organic chemistry material that he memorized that morning. His difficulty best illustrates...

motivated forgetting

Compulsive gamblers frequently recall losing less money than is actually the case. Their memory failure best illustrates...

repression

A type of motivated forgetting in which anxiety-arousing memories are blocked from conscious awareness is known as...

memory construction

Our schemas often influence the form in which information is retrieved from long-term memory. This fact is most relevant to appreciation the importance of...

the misinformation effect

An attorney uses misleading questions in an attempt to distort a court witness' recall of a previously observed crime. This best illustrates...

source amnesia

As a child, Clay dreamed that he was chased and attacked by a ferocious dog. Many years later, he mistakenly recalled that this had actually happened to him. Clay's false recollection best illustrates...

the misinformation effect

Compared to adults, children are more susceptible to...

serial position effect

At a block party, Dabney is introduced to 8 new neighbors. Moments later, she can only remember the names of the 1st 3 and last 2 neighbors. Her experience illustrates...

flashbulb

Many people can easily recall exactly what they were doing when they heard the news of the 9/11 terrorist tragedy. This best illustrates ____ memory.

encoding, storage, retrieval

The 3 steps in memory processing are...

speed-reading

What is not recommended as a strategy for improving memory?

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