Chapter 14

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character

a heritable feature

hybridization

the mating of true breeding varieties

P generation

parental generation

Michael Morin

gayest guy ever

F1 Generation

first filial generation

F2 Generation

second filial generation

dominant allele

determines an organisms appearance

recessive allele

no visible effect on the organism

law of segregation

is the separation of different racial groups in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a washroom, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home

the real law of segregation

paired alleles separate during meiosis, each gamete gets only one allele from each pair

punnett squares

predicts the allele composition of offspring of genetic make up

homozygous

pair of identical alleles

heterozygous

two different alleles

phenotype

observable traits of an organism

genotype

genetic makeup of an organism

testcross

breeding of an organism of unknown genotype with a homozygous recessive individual to determine the unknown genotype

monohybrids

organism's that were heterozygous for one character

dihybrids

individuals heterozygous for two characters

law of independent assortment

each pair of alleles segregates independently of each other pair of alleles during gamete formation

complete dominance

when offspring always looked like one of the two parental varieties because one allele in a pair showed...

incomplete dominance

when neither allele is completely dominant

codominance

the two alleles both affect the phenotype in separate ways

Tay-Sachs Disease

an inherited disorder in humans that affects the human enzymes in the body

genetics

study of heredity

heredity

process by which traits are passed from parent to offspring

Gregor Mendel

established Mendelian genetics; founder of genetics; Augustanian monk born in chekaslovakia; looks like brian francke

Gregor Mendel

experimented with pea plants

pea plant experiment

1) each trait was studied on a different chromosome 2) peas self pollinate 3) peas grow quickly and easy to cross

stamen

used to pollinate stigma; male reproductive organ on plants

stigma

the part of a flower's carpel, which traps pollen grains.

cross pollination

male pollinates the female of a flower on a different plant

purebred

offspring display traits that are identical to the parent plant when it is self pollinated

strain

plants that are pure for a specific trait

traits

observable characteristics that are passed from generation to generation

hybrid

organism produced by crossing parents with different traits

molecular genetics

the study of the structure and function of chromosomes and genes

gene

unit of heredity; ordered sequence of nucleotides

alleles

different forms of a gene

14

how many traits did Mendel use

7

how many characteristics did Mendel use

lady gaga

hahahahahahahahhahahahahahahahahahahahahahah

contrasting

plants with __________ traits were cross pollinated

1

the offspring were the F_ Generation

self pollinated

F1 plants were _____ ___________ in Mendel's experiment

f2

the offspring of the self pollinated plants were the __ __ generation

absent

when strains were crossed, one trait would be ____ in the F1 generation

dominant

the trait expressed in the F1 generation would "override" the other is the _______

recessive

the trait not expressed in the F1 generation but reappears in F2 generation are considered_________

men

Michael Morin likes _____

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