The Art of Public Speaking. SPH 131 Final exam

71 terms by Arturvausha 

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

SPH 131 vocabulary for last exam

Small Group

A collection of three to twelve people that assemble for a specific purpose.

implied leader

A group member to whom other members defer because of her or his rank, expertise, or other quality.

emergent leader

A group member who emerges as a leader during the group's deliberations.

designated leader

A person who is elected or appointed as leader when the group is formed.

procedural needs

Routine 'housekeeping' actions necessary for the efficient conduct of business in a small group.

task needs

Substantive actions necessary to help a small group complete its assigned task.

maintenance needs

Communicative actions necessary to maintain interpersonal relations in a small group.

hidden agenda

A set of unstated individual goals that may conflict with the goals of the group as a whole.

oral report

A speech presenting the findings, conclusions, decisions, etc., of a small group.

symposium

A public presentation in which several people present prepared speeches on different aspects of the same topic.

panel discussion

A structured conversation on a given topic among several people in front of an audience.

audience-centeredness

Keeping the audience foremost in mind at every step of speech preparation and presentation.

identification

A process in which speakers seek to create a bond with the audience by emphasizing common values, goals, and experiences.

egocentrism

The tendency of people to be concerned above all with their own values, beliefs, and well-being.

fixed-alternative questions

Questions that offer a fixed choice between two or more alternatives.

either-or

A fallacy that forces listeners to choose between two alternatives when more than two alternatives exist.

bandwagon

A fallacy which assumes that because something is popular, it is therefore good, correct, or desirable.

slippery slope

A fallacy which assumes that taking a first step will lead to subsequent steps that cannot be prevented.

denotative meaning

The literal or dictionary meaning of a word or phrase.

connotative meaning

The meaning suggested by the associations or emotions triggered by a word or phrase.

concrete words

Words that refer to tangible objects

abstract words

Words that refer to ideas or concepts.

simile

An explicit comparison, introduced with the word 'like' or 'as,' between things that are essentially different yet have something in common.

metaphor

An implicit comparison, not introduced with the word 'like' or 'as,' between two things that are essentially different yet have something in common.

parallelism

The similar arrangement of a pair or series of related words, phrases, or sentences.

repetition

Reiteration of the same word or set of words at the beginning or end of successive clauses or sentences.

alliteration

Repetition of the initial consonant sound of close or adjoining words.

antithesis

The juxtaposition of contrasting ideas, usually in parallel structure.

generic "he"

The use of 'he' to refer to both women and men.

pronunciation

The accepted standard of sound and rhythm for words in a given language

articulation

The physical production of particular speech sounds.

dialect

A variety of a language distinguished by variations of accent, grammar, or vocabulary.

kinesics

The study of body motions as a systematic mode of communication.

question and answer session

....

hearing

The vibration of sound waves on the eardrums and the firing of electrochemical impulses in the brain.

listening

Paying close attention to, and making sense of, what we hear

ethos

The name used by Aristotle for what modern students of communication refer to as credibility.

logos

The name used by Aristotle for the logical appeal of a speaker. The two major elements of logos are evidence and reasoning.

pathos

The name used by Aristotle for what modern students of communication refer to as emotional appeal.

pandering

Gratify or indulge

scale questions

Questions that require responses at fixed intervals along a scale of answers.

open-ended questions

Questions that allow respondents to answer however they want

persuasion

A means of making someone to do or believe something; an argument.

question of fact

A question about the truth or falsity of an assertion.

question of value

A question about the worth, rightness, morality, and so forth of an idea or action.

question of policy

A question about whether a specific course of action should or should not be taken.

burden of proof

The obligation facing a persuasive speaker to prove that a change from current policy is necessary.

credibility

The audience's perception of whether a speaker is qualified to speak on a given topic.

reasoning from specific instances

Reasoning that moves from particular facts to a general conclusion

reasoning from principle

Reasoning that moves from a general principle to a specific conclusion.

causal reasoning

Reasoning that seeks to establish the relationship between causes and effects.

analogical reasoning

Reasoning in which a speaker compares two similar cases and infers that what is true for the first case is also true for the second.

red herring

A fallacy that introduces an irrelevant issue to divert attention from the subject under discussion.

ad hominem

A fallacy that attacks the person rather than dealing with the real issue in dispute.

appreciative listening

Listening for pleasure or enjoyment.

empathic listening

Listening to provide emotional support for a speaker.

comprehensive listening

Listening to understand the message of a speaker.

critical listening

Listening to evaluate a message for purposes of accepting or rejecting it.

interdependence

dependence between two or more people,

cohesion

The action or fact of forming a united whole.

primary tension

Experience of tension that individual group members feel during the early stages of group evolution or at the beginning of a meeting

secondary tension

Discomfort that a group experiences, or that is experienced by individual group members, beyond the tolerance threshold for tension.

groupthink

The practice of thinking or making decisions as a group in a way that discourages creativity or individual responsibility

risky shift

Group polarization is the tendency of people to make decisions that are more extreme when they are in a group,

leaderless group

no leader.

autocratic

Taking no account of other people's wishes or opinions; domineering

democratic

Favoring or characterized by social equality; egalitarian

laissez-faire

individualism:

extemporaneous

Spoken or done without preparation

impromptu

Done without being planned, organized, or rehearsed

memorized

Commit to memory; learn by hear

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set