In glycolysis, ATP molecules are produced by _____.
2. In the phosphofructokinase molecule shown, the active site has a much higher affinity for
ATP than the regulatory site does. Which answer best summarizes what the
consequences would be if the regulatory site had a much higher affinity for ATP than the
active site did?
Glucose oxidation would be inhibited even if ATP were scarce in the cell.
Following glycolysis and the Krebs cycle, but before the electron transport chain and
oxidative phosphorylation, most of the energy from the original glucose molecule is in
the form of _____.
What is the function of coenzyme A in the Krebs cycle?
It is the coenzyme of acetylation reactions
In mitochondrial electron transport, what is the direct role of O2?
to function as the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain
The functional group of ubiquinone
readily binds and releases electrons
What commonly happens when the terminal phosphate of ATP is attached to a substrate
it changes the conformation of the molecule
Which of the following statements is correct concerning the reaction shown in the figure
The carbon atoms in glucose are oxidized; the oxygen atoms in the oxygen molecule
(O2) are reduced
During electron transport, energy from _____ is used to pump ______ into the cristae of
NADH and FADH2 ... H+
Comparatively speaking, which of the following molecules has the lowest amount of
Which statement is false?
A. Yeast can make pyruvate
B. Yeast can only undergo fermentation to produce cellular energy
C. Yeast possess only some of the chemicals that make up the Krebs cycle
D. Yeast do not have an electron transport chain
E. Yeast can produce CO2 via cellular respiration
Yeast can only undergo fermentation to produce cellular energy
A. are part of the electron transport chain of mitochondria
B. are part of the electron transport chain of chloroplasts
C. usually hold a metal ion in place
In mammals, if there is no oxygen, what is one thing that cells will produce?
What molecule is directly used by ATP synthase to produce ATP?
Which of the following statements most accurately compares photosynthesis and
A. Photosynthesis requires ATP, but respiration does not.
B. Photosynthesis is just respiration in reverse.
C. ATP generated during photosynthesis is a fundamentally different process than ATP
generated during respiration.
D. Photosynthesis stores energy in complex organic molecules; respiration releases the
energy stored in complex organic molecules
E. Photosynthesis uses NADH, but respiration uses NADPH
Photosynthesis stores energy in complex organic molecules; respiration releases the
energy stored in complex organic molecules
Data suggest that rubisco (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase) makes up 10% of the
total protein found in spinach leaves. Research elucidating the structure of rubisco
shows that it has four active sites. Why, with four active sites, might there be such a
large concentration of rubisco in plant matter?
Rubisco is a very slow enzyme; what it lacks in speed, it makes up in quantity
17. Suppose that the concentration of CO2 available for the Calvin cycle decreased by 50%
(because the stomata closed to conserve water).
The rate of O2 production would decrease because the rate of ADP and NADP +production by the Calvin cycle would decrease.
The final electron acceptor(s) associated with photosystem I is/are _____.
According to the chemiosmotic hypothesis, what provides the energy that directly drives ATP synthesis?
hydrogen ion (proton) gradient
The long hydrophobic tail of plastoquinone
is the site that anchors the molecule in the lipid membrane
According to the Z scheme, what is the path of electrons through photosystem I (PS I) and
photosystem II (PS II)?
PS II → pheophytin → plastoquinone → cytochrome complex → plastocyanin → PS I
Both photosystem I and photosystem II employ the use of a(n) _____, which drives the
formation of ATP and NADPH
electron transport chain
In C4 plants, where is rubisco located In high concentration?
bundle sheath cells
Which of these equations best summarizes photosynthesis?
6 CO2 + 6 H2O → C6H12O6 + 6 O2
The light reactions of photosynthesis use _____ and produce _____.
water ... NADPH
A small acorn over time can grow into a huge oak tree. The wood in such a tree can weigh
many tons, even after it has been cut into logs and dried. Where does most of this mass
come from as the tree grows?
Gasses in the air
Chlorophyll A and Chlorophyll B
Have small differences in chemical structure and different absorption spectra
The classic experiment that demonstrated the action spectrum for photosynthetic activity in
Measured the amount of oxygen-sensitive bacteria that grew over a given section of
The transfer of electrons along the electron transport chain in thylakoids
leads to an increased amount of protons in the thylakoid lumen
The final several steps of the Calvin cycle
Result in the production of ribulose bis phosphate
A mutation occurs in DNA such that the messenger RNA now codes for a valine instead of
a glutamate in the hemoglobin of a person. Which of the following statements is most
there is both a change in the phenotype and genotype of the individual
Removing three nucleotides in a row from a stretch of a gene
may only have a small effect on the protein produced by the gene sequence
The formation of mRNA
proceeds in the 5' to 3' direction
If a mutated DNA sequence produces a protein that differs in one central amino acid from
the normal protein, which of the following kinds of point mutations could have occurred?
an addition mutation and a deletion mutation
If the sequence ATGCATGTCAATTGA were mutated such that a base were inserted after
the first G and the third T were deleted, how many amino acids would be changed in the
If a DNA sequence is altered from TAGCTGA to TAGTGA, what kind of mutation has
What percentage of the DNA in your body is used to code for proteins?
If two nucleotides were used to form a codon, how many amino acids could be specified?
When we say that the genetic code is redundant, what is meant?
All amino acids except methionine and tryptophan are coded for by more than one
A primary mRNA transcript contains which of the following?
An anticodon is part of what molecule?
The "E" site in a functioning ribosome
is the site where amino acids exit the ribosome
blocks the activity of RNApolymerase II
The -10 and -35 boxes are located on
What is this molecule
What determines the primary structure of a DNA molecule?
the sequence of deoxyribonucleotides