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In glycolysis, ATP molecules are produced by _____.

substrate-level phosphorylation

2. In the phosphofructokinase molecule shown, the active site has a much higher affinity for
ATP than the regulatory site does. Which answer best summarizes what the
consequences would be if the regulatory site had a much higher affinity for ATP than the
active site did?

Glucose oxidation would be inhibited even if ATP were scarce in the cell.

Following glycolysis and the Krebs cycle, but before the electron transport chain and
oxidative phosphorylation, most of the energy from the original glucose molecule is in
the form of _____.

NADH

What is the function of coenzyme A in the Krebs cycle?

It is the coenzyme of acetylation reactions

In mitochondrial electron transport, what is the direct role of O2?

to function as the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain

The functional group of ubiquinone

readily binds and releases electrons

What commonly happens when the terminal phosphate of ATP is attached to a substrate
molecule?

it changes the conformation of the molecule

Which of the following statements is correct concerning the reaction shown in the figure
below?

The carbon atoms in glucose are oxidized; the oxygen atoms in the oxygen molecule
(O2) are reduced

During electron transport, energy from _____ is used to pump ______ into the cristae of
mitochondria

NADH and FADH2 ... H+

Comparatively speaking, which of the following molecules has the lowest amount of
energy?

oxaloacetate

Which statement is false?
A. Yeast can make pyruvate
B. Yeast can only undergo fermentation to produce cellular energy
C. Yeast possess only some of the chemicals that make up the Krebs cycle
D. Yeast do not have an electron transport chain
E. Yeast can produce CO2 via cellular respiration

Yeast can only undergo fermentation to produce cellular energy

Cytochromes

A. are part of the electron transport chain of mitochondria
B. are part of the electron transport chain of chloroplasts
C. usually hold a metal ion in place

In mammals, if there is no oxygen, what is one thing that cells will produce?

pyruvate

What molecule is directly used by ATP synthase to produce ATP?

H+

Which of the following statements most accurately compares photosynthesis and
respiration?
A. Photosynthesis requires ATP, but respiration does not.
B. Photosynthesis is just respiration in reverse.
C. ATP generated during photosynthesis is a fundamentally different process than ATP
generated during respiration.
D. Photosynthesis stores energy in complex organic molecules; respiration releases the
energy stored in complex organic molecules
E. Photosynthesis uses NADH, but respiration uses NADPH

Photosynthesis stores energy in complex organic molecules; respiration releases the
energy stored in complex organic molecules

Data suggest that rubisco (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase) makes up 10% of the
total protein found in spinach leaves. Research elucidating the structure of rubisco
shows that it has four active sites. Why, with four active sites, might there be such a
large concentration of rubisco in plant matter?

Rubisco is a very slow enzyme; what it lacks in speed, it makes up in quantity

17. Suppose that the concentration of CO2 available for the Calvin cycle decreased by 50%
(because the stomata closed to conserve water).

The rate of O2 production would decrease because the rate of ADP and NADP +production by the Calvin cycle would decrease.

The final electron acceptor(s) associated with photosystem I is/are _____.

NADP+

According to the chemiosmotic hypothesis, what provides the energy that directly drives ATP synthesis?

hydrogen ion (proton) gradient

The long hydrophobic tail of plastoquinone

is the site that anchors the molecule in the lipid membrane

According to the Z scheme, what is the path of electrons through photosystem I (PS I) and
photosystem II (PS II)?

PS II → pheophytin → plastoquinone → cytochrome complex → plastocyanin → PS I
→ ferredoxin

Both photosystem I and photosystem II employ the use of a(n) _____, which drives the
formation of ATP and NADPH

electron transport chain

In C4 plants, where is rubisco located In high concentration?

bundle sheath cells

Which of these equations best summarizes photosynthesis?

6 CO2 + 6 H2O → C6H12O6 + 6 O2

The light reactions of photosynthesis use _____ and produce _____.

water ... NADPH

A small acorn over time can grow into a huge oak tree. The wood in such a tree can weigh
many tons, even after it has been cut into logs and dried. Where does most of this mass
come from as the tree grows?

Gasses in the air

Chlorophyll A and Chlorophyll B

Have small differences in chemical structure and different absorption spectra

The classic experiment that demonstrated the action spectrum for photosynthetic activity in
alga

Measured the amount of oxygen-sensitive bacteria that grew over a given section of
illuminated alga

The transfer of electrons along the electron transport chain in thylakoids

leads to an increased amount of protons in the thylakoid lumen

The final several steps of the Calvin cycle

Result in the production of ribulose bis phosphate

A mutation occurs in DNA such that the messenger RNA now codes for a valine instead of
a glutamate in the hemoglobin of a person. Which of the following statements is most
correct?

there is both a change in the phenotype and genotype of the individual

Removing three nucleotides in a row from a stretch of a gene

may only have a small effect on the protein produced by the gene sequence

The formation of mRNA

proceeds in the 5' to 3' direction

If a mutated DNA sequence produces a protein that differs in one central amino acid from
the normal protein, which of the following kinds of point mutations could have occurred?

an addition mutation and a deletion mutation

If the sequence ATGCATGTCAATTGA were mutated such that a base were inserted after
the first G and the third T were deleted, how many amino acids would be changed in the
mutant protein?

two

If a DNA sequence is altered from TAGCTGA to TAGTGA, what kind of mutation has
occurred?

frame shift
point mutation

What percentage of the DNA in your body is used to code for proteins?

3%

If two nucleotides were used to form a codon, how many amino acids could be specified?

16

When we say that the genetic code is redundant, what is meant?

All amino acids except methionine and tryptophan are coded for by more than one
codon

A primary mRNA transcript contains which of the following?

A. Exons
B. Introns

An anticodon is part of what molecule?

tRNA

The "E" site in a functioning ribosome

is the site where amino acids exit the ribosome

α-amanitin

blocks the activity of RNApolymerase II

The -10 and -35 boxes are located on

the DNA

What is this molecule

a nucleoside

What determines the primary structure of a DNA molecule?

the sequence of deoxyribonucleotides

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