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A woman, alone in a house, ignores the creaking sounds she hears and experiences no stress. Another woman might hear the same sounds, suspect an intruder, and thus become alarmed. These different reactions illustrate the importance of:

stress appraisal

You look down while sitting at the top of the Ferris wheel. You immediately feel your heart start to pound and you simultaneously experience fear. Which of the following theories best explains this emotional response?

Cannon-Bard theory

According to the James-Lange theory of emotion, which of the following is the correct sequence of events when a car drives directly toward us and we experience emotion?

see an oncoming car; heart pounds; experience fear

A lie detector is used to monitor a person's:

respiration.

Performance on tasks depends on arousal level as well as the type of task. For optimal arousal on an EASY task:

relatively high arousal is best.

Julie is competing in a basketball free throw contest. She is likely to perform _________ if her physiological arousal during the performance is _________.

well; moderate

Women appear to be more sensitive to nonverbal cues than men. Which of the following research findings support this?

Research has found all of these things are true.

Some people are better at detecting other people's emotions. For example, shown a 2-second scene of an upset woman, people who are _____________ are better able to detect her emotion.

introverts

______________ suggested that we can stimulate the subjective experience of cheerfulness simply by acting as if we are already cheerful.

William James

The idea that anger is reduced through aggressive action or fantasy is known as:

catharsis.

Michael is an Olympic swimmer who believes that competition gives him an edge. His arousal has:

positive valence.

The feel-good, do-good phenomenon refers to the impact of:

happiness on helpfulness.

In times of stress the outer part of the adrenal glands secrete glucocorticoid stress hormones such as:

cortisol.

John has just finished a brutal tour with opposing forces. He lost a number of his friends but was able to fight despite the death around him. The two stress hormones at play are:

cortisol and epinephrine.

B lymphocytes are formed in the:

bone marrow.

________________ is to addressing work problems with a colleague as ________________ is to talking to your hair stylist about all of the problems at work.

Problem-focused coping; emotion-focused coping

Attempting to alleviate stress directly by avoiding or ignoring a stressor and attending to emotional needs related to one's stress reaction is known as:

emotion-focused coping.

The director of an assisted-living housing complex was puzzled by the following situation. When she let the residents choose their own dinner-time, as well as what they wanted to eat, she realized there were far fewer health problems and deaths. To what might she attribute this?

perceived control

emotion

a response of the whole organism, involving (1) physiological arousal (2) expressive behaviors, and (3) conscious experience

James-Lange theory

the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli

cannon-Bard theory

the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological response and (2) the subjective experience of emotion

two-factor theory

the Schachter-Singer theory that to experience emotion on must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal

polygraph

a machine, commonly used in attempts to detect lies, that measures several of the physiological responses (such as perspiration and cardiovascular and breathing changes) accompanying emotion

facial feedback effect

the tendency of facial muscle states to trigger corresponding feelings such as fear, anger, or happiness

catharsis

emotional release. In psychology, the catharsis hypothesis maintains that "releasing" aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges

feel-good, do-good phenomenon

people's tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood

subjective well-being

self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life. Used along with measures of objective well-being (for example, physical and economic indicators) to evaluate people's quality of life

adaptation-level phenomenon

our tendency to form judgments (of sounds, of lights, of income) relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience

relative deprivation

the perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself

health psychology

a sub-field of psychology, that provides psychology's contribution to behavioral medicine

stress

the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging

general adaptation syndrome (GAS)

Selye's concept of the body's adaptive response to stress in three phases-alarm, resistance, exhaustion

tend and befriend

under stress, people (especially women) often provide support to others (tend) and bond with and seek support from others (befriend)

psychophysiological illness

literally, "mind body" illness; any stress-related physical illness, such as hypertension and some headaches

psychoneuroimmunology

the study of how psychological, neural, and endocrine processes together affect the immune system and resulting health

lymphocytes

the two types of white blood cells that are part of the body's immune system; B lymphocytes form in the bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infections; T lymphocytes form in the thymus and other lymphatic tissue and attack cancer cells, viruses, and foreign substance

coronary heart disease

the clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle; the leading cause of death in many developed countries

Type A

Friedman and Rosenman's term for competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people

Type B

Friedman and Rosenman's term for easygoing, relaxed people

coping

alleviating stress using emotional, cognitive, or behavioral methods

problem-focuses coping

attempting to alleviate stress directly-by changing the stressor or the way we interact with that stressor

emotional-focused coping

attempting to alleviate stress by avoiding or ignoring a stressor and attending to emotional needs related to one's stress reaction

aerobic exercise

sustained exercise that increases heart and lung fitness; may also alleviate depression and anxiety

complementary and alternative medicine

as yet unproven health care treatments intended to supplement (complement) or serve as alternatives to conventional medical schools, used in hospitals, or reimbursed by insurance companies. When research shows a therapy to be safe and effective, it usually then becomes part of accepted medical practice

According to the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion, which of the following is the correct sequence of events when a car drives directly toward us and we experience emotion?

see an oncoming car; heart punds and, at the same time, fear is experienced

Which theory of emotion emphasizes the simultaneous experience of body response and emotional feeling?

Cannon-Bard theory

_________________ have demonstrated that some emotional responses involve no conscious thinking.

Zajonc and LeDoux

Exuberant infants and alert, energetic adults are especially likely to show high levels of brain activity in the:

left frontal lobe

Julie is competing in a basketball free throw contest. She is likely to perform _________ if her physiological arousal during the performance is _________.

well; moderate

Strangers placed in male-female pairs were instructed to stare into each other's eyes for two minutes. They reported feeling:

a tingle of attraction and affection

It has been suggested that raised eyebrows are universally associated with a surprised expression because they effectively widen the eyes to enhance the perception of unexpected circumstances. This suggestion best illustrates the:

evolutionary perspective

If people wrinkle their noses in disgust when presented with a strange-looking food, they are likely to experience an increasingly intense emotional aversion to the food. This best illustrates the:

facial feedback effect

Loren is studying emotion in her psychology class, and is surprised to find out that in individualistic cultures _____________ is related to happiness; in communal cultures _____________ matters more.

high self-esteem; social acceptance

People tend to ___________ the long-term emotional impact of sustaining a paralyzing physical injury and they tend to ___________ the long-term emotional impact of acquiring wealth.

overestimate; overestimate

Emotions are often hard to describe, but one way of clarifying them is to place them along two dimensions. Thus, people can describe where an emotion falls along two dimensions: (low versus high) ___________ and (pleasant versus unpleasant) ___________.

arousal; valence

Anders has just received devastating news about the copy shop he owns. Things seem very bleak because a nationally known competitor is moving in on the same block. Anders has many debts to pay off and his wife is expecting their fourth child. When he hears the bad news, his heart rate zooms and he feels faint, like he is in shock. According to Seyle, he is:

in phase 1, experiencing an alarm reaction

Roger has a good amount on his plate. He works full-time, has a part-time job, and has a new consulting company in response to his son's special needs. He seems to be coping with everything quite well, for the moment anyway. According to Selye, he is in which stage of the general adaptation syndrome?

phase 2, in a state of resistance

Maya owes the credit card company $20,000, her adjustable rate mortgage has just gone up, and she has been out of work for 3 months. Her husband of 15 years came home today to tell her he was having an affair and wants a divorce. With that news, she collapsed and had to be taken to the emergency room. According to Selye, she is in which stage of the general adaptation syndrome?

phase 3, in a state of exhaustion

Shane's doctor suggests that he begin an aerobic exercise program in addition to the psychotherapy for his depression. As a result, Shane will experience all of the following EXCEPT that he will:

he will become more depressed from the stress of the exercise program

People tend to use emotion-focused, rather than problem-focused, coping strategies when they:

believe they cannot change a stressful situation

Psychologists would most likely use biofeedback to help clients reduce:

tension headaches

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