Sociology- Final

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Which social scientist founded the theory of symbolic interaction?

George Herbert Mead

In order to develop a reseach design, a sociologist must?

Decide what to study
Pick a method for the study
Choose what group of people to study

Sociologist studies have indicated that people who are married are less likely to commit suicide than people who are divorced. In this example, marital status is an ______?

Control variable

What research method would be most appropriate for a study of cultural changes over centuries?

Content analysis

Controlled experiments are highly focused ways of collecting data and especially useful for determning _____

Cause and effect

When a variabe acurately measures a concept, it is _____


_____ emphasizes that cultural changes as individuals produce new cultural meaning

symbolic interaction

Bob is on his first day with mary, whom he really like. He tries to act in a manner that will cause her to like him too and to want to go out with him again. This is an example of ______?

Impression management

________ theory considers the formation of identity to be learned response to social stimuli.

Social learning

Which term was used by George Herbert Mead to refer to the child's awareness of the attitudes, viewpoints, and expectations of society as a whole?

generalized other

The process of mentally assuming the perspective of another, therby enabling one to respond from that imagined viewpoint, is known as

role taking



Inequality, powerful

Conflict Theory

face-to-face, negoation, individuals

Symoblic Interaction

Blinn College's recent view of smoking on campus as deviant is best explained by

Influence of social movements

According to social control theory deviant behavior occurs

When attachment to social instituitions and social bonds break down

According to differential association theory, people become deviant

by learning from members of their primary group

Karl Marx argued that redistribution of wealth and power would only happen with _____


______ created the concept of "life chance"

Max Weber

Wealth is

The monetary value of everything one actually owns

The _____ includes those who are likely to be permanently unemployed and without much means of economic support

urban underclass

_____ is a feeling of shared identification with other of similar life chances and social status


The American dream is an example of


The culture of poverty explanation contends that poverty is the result of

lack of individuals motivation an poor work habits on the part of the poor

Max Weber defined ____ as the ability to influence groups and individuals even in the face of opposition


Which sociological theoretical perspective would argue that most talented people would not go to school for many years to become biochemists if they could make as much money and gain as much respect working as elevator operators.

funcitonalist perspective

Which of the following is not an explanation for the gender pay gap?

women and men have been affected differently by federal legislation

Which of the following is a feminist theory of gender inequality?

liberal feminism

founder of sociology

Auguste Comte

Sociologist view all human behavior as

occuring in a societal context

Who are the European sociologist theorists?

Max Weber, Emile Durkheim and Karl Marx

Who is in charge of functionalism?

Emile Durkheim

Who is in charge of conflict theory?

Karl Marx

Who is in charge of symbolic interaction?

Max Weber

The underlying idea for sociological imagination is the intersection between

troubles and issues

Sociology is considered a science because sociologists

use systematic study to describe, explain and predict social phenomena

The system of thought that places a high value on scientific observation and less value on supernatural explanations is called


Part of sociological perspective

discovering unsettling facts, debunking, and critical distance

Macrosociology encompasses which sociological theory

conflict theory

Social scientists founded symbolic interactionism

George Herbert Mead

3 classical theoretical perspectives

conflict, symbolic interaction, and functionalism

What did Emile Durkheim call the "social patterns external to individuals

social facts

Which theory would view society as a living organism in which each part of the organism contributes to its survival and stability


Concept Max Weber used to stress the need for sociologists to take into account peoples emotions, thoughts, belief, understanding, and attitudes


Karl Marx's social analysis, society was fundamentally divided between

lower and upper classes that struggle against each other for ownership of the finite resources.

Sociologists who study less-complex and less differentiated patterns of social interaction are using?


The _____ model of social interaction holds that our interactions are determined by the rewards or punishments that we receive from others

social exchange

College students, truck drivers, and the elderly are all examples of social ______


The miligram experiments confirms which influence in groups?

Obidence to authority

Which sociological perspective holds the view that individuals create their social world through shared meaning and manipulation of symbols?

symbolic interactionism

Which of the following sociologist advocated basic research on the lives of Blacks?

W.E.B Du Bois

Which of the following terms is used to describe a systematic, organized series of steps that ensures maximum objectivity and constitency in researching a problem?

scientific method

A sociology study explores whether there is truth to the stereotype that women are bad drivers. This study is based on which type of reasoning?


Sociologist conduct a "review of literature to

all of the above

What are the possible sources of sociological research questions?

all of the above
Past studies that one may want to expand further
present day social problems
an observation in everyday life

In order to develop a research desgin, a sociologt must

decide what question to study
chose what group of people to study
pick a method for the study

Cross-sectional data is collected

at only one point in time

A variable is

a characteristic of a person or group that can have more than one value or score

Which one of the following is not a type of variable described in chapter 3?


A large collection of people, groups, or categories that a researcher studies and about which generalization are is called


The research method that permits the sociologist to be both a subjective member and an objective observer at the same time is called

participant observation

When people must respond to a question from a fixed list of possible answers to a question then it

is closed ended

A prediction of findings, a nunch, a tentative assumption, or a statement that relates two variables is called a


A sociologists decides to study the interaction among students in the classroom. When the students realize they are under observation, they become shy and quiet. This is an example of

Hawthorne effect

Which of the following is not a charateristic of culture

it never changes

Which of the following are elements of culture?

Both A and C
languages and norms
beliefs and values

A member of a new fundamentalist church believes that she has found the one true way to achieve salivation and members of other religions are pagan and will go directly into hell when they die. This individual is


The ____posits that language determines what people think and perceive because language forces people to perceive the world in definite terms

Sapir-Whorf hypothesis

Which of the following is the best example of a taboo?

cooking Ralph's lungs on your George Foreman Grill

Which of the following is not a type of culture discussed in class?


The most important element of culture is


Which of the following is an example of non-material culture?

table manners

A _____ is something that stands for something else, or anything to which people give meaning.


A _____ is a reward of punishment as a consequence or performing or violating normative behavior


______ emphasizes that culture provides consensus, coherence and stability in society


_______ emphasizes that culture serves the interests of powerful groups and elites

Conflict theory

______ emphasizes that culture changes as individuals produce new cultural meanings?

symbolic interactionism

_____ is when one aspect of culture changes more slowly than other aspects.

Cultural lag

The theoretical approach that is based on the idea that a social scientist can discover normal social order through disrupting it is referred to as


Which of the following is not a form of cultural change?

societal ethnocentrism

Through the process of socialization people

all of these
Learn the customs of their society
Develop self concepts
are assigned their identities

Social scientisits and others debate whether humanness is naturally occuring or sociall created. This is called the ______ debate


socialization causes people to conform to cultural expectations, which is a form ______.

social control

Which of the following is not a consequence of socialization?

it stops teaching people as they age

A young woman decides that she wants to become an olympic swimmer. She takes swimming lessons, joins her school swimming team, reads magazine articles about Champion swimmers and goes to swimming meets at a nerby college. This is an example of _____?

aniticipatory socialization

Resocialization is likely to occur in all the following, expect ______.

the death of a loved one

Graduation ceremonies, weddings, and bar mitzvahs are all examples of

rites of passage

Which theorists used the concept of the "looking gladd self" to explain how the self emerges in interaction with others

Charles Horton Cooley

______ views socialization as a process that builds group identity and teaches inequality

conflict theory

Children shape and form their attitude, beliefs, and behaviors based on cultural messages they receive from

all of these
family, mass media, and technology, school

Which theoretical perspective suggests that in forming a sense of ourselves, we imagine how we appear to other and how other perceive us, and finally we develop a feeling about ourselves as a result of these impressions?

symbolic interactionist perspective

Which theoretical perspectives states that schools play a critical role in teaching children the vaules and customs of the larger society?

functionalist perspective

The process of mentally assuming the perspective of another, therby enabling one to respond from that imagined viewpoint, is known as

generalized the other

Life course theorists suggest

socialization continues through all stages of the life cycle

Which of the following characteristics does a modern society possess?

all of these

Sociologist use the term ______ to describe the order established in social groups at any level

social organization

Emile Durkheim described society as suis generis. This meas that society _______

is greater than the sum of its parts; it is an entity of its own

_____ are established and organized systems of social behavior with recognized purposes and objectives

social institutions

Which social scientist used the concepts of mechanical and organic solidarity?

Emile Durkheim

which is not a preindustrial society described in the book?


Ferninand Toonies would view hunting and gathering (foraging) societies as examples of


Which of the following items is not related to status?

status strain

College students are expected to attend class, takes exams, and pass their course. This is defined as a


A condition where in a single role brings conflicting expectations is called role


One's master status

all of these choices are true

A medical doctor and a judge are examples of

achieved statuses

______ exists where the statuses occupied by a person bring wiht them significantly different amounts of prestige and differing expectations

status inconsistency

Which of the following is not an example of nonverbal communication

proxemic communication

The _____ model of social interaction hold that our interactions are determined by the rewards or punishments that we receive from others

social exchange

Coerceive organizations were described by Erving Goffman as_____.

total institutions

The classical sociologist theorist who first noted and described the characteristics of a bureaucracy was ______.

Max Weber

The overall purpose of the bureaucratic organization is _____.

to maximize efficiency

Which of theses is not considered a problem within bureaucracies?

their informal structure

______ of organization sees participation in an organization as a means of self acualization

symbolic ineractionist theory

Which theoretical perspectives is most likely to focus on the fact that individuals experience stress and allientation as a result of being subordinate within a formal organization?

conflict theory

Which theoretical perspective would characterize bureaucracies in terms of effiieciency, control, and disunity

functionalist theory

Which of the following is considered a characteristic of deviance

it has social context

According to Emile Durkheim deviance is functional because it

helps members of society know what is considered normal behavior

Which of the following is an example of informal deviance?


Which of the following are functionalist theories of deviance

none of these

Emile Durkheim would consider teenage suicide as an example of _____ suicide


Robert Merton's structural strain theory traces the origins of deviance to _____.

the tension between desired cultural goals and teh means of achieving them,

Which of the following is not an adaption of Robert Merton's structural strain theory?


Which of the following are examples of elite deviance?

all of these

What do recidivism, deviant identites, and deviant careers all habe in common?

they can be explained by labeling theory

Labeling theorists argue that once a person is labeled deviant

it will be difficult for them to reestablish a nondeviant identity

______ is an attribute that is socially devauled and discredited


What is the shared data weakness of the FBI Uniform Crime Reports and National Crime Vicitmization surveys?

under reporting

Which of the following is a classification of crime specified by the FBI Uniform Crime Reports?

all of these

______ is the process by which different statuses develop in any group, organization, or society.

social differentiation

What is the difference between social differentiation and social stratification on

differentiation is not necessarily unequal, while stratification is structured inequality.

The primary type of stratification in present day U.S. is the _____ system.


Which ofthe following is an indicator of socio-economic status?

all of these

Which of the following refers to the movement of individuals or groups from one social class to another

social mobility

Social mobility occuring between generation is called ______ mobility?


Which of the following is an example of downa=ward social mobility?

all of these

The vast majority of people who live below the poverty line are?

Both a and c

A social category of people who share a common culture of heritage is referred to as

an ethnic group

Race and Ethnicity are terms that

are distinct from each other

Racialization is the process wherby some social category ______.

takes on perceived racial characteristics

According to sociologist a minority group is a group

less powerful

The ______ principle states that we categorize people on the basis of what appears physically prominent and obvious about them


While predjuice is an attitude, dicrimination is

obeservable behavior

Sociology states that racism

is the belief that members of a racial groupd are inferior

Which of the following is a type of racism?


Which of the following is not a property of a minoirty group?

minority members generally marry outside of their group

A sociologist would chose which of the following as a minority group in the U.S.


An unreliable generalization about members of a group which does not recognize individual differences within the group is referred to as

a stereotype

What is the most important factor in determining the racial categories in any society?

the beliefs and interests of the most powerfil group(s) in society

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