The age of castles and kings, knights in armor, monks and cloisters, ballads and romance, poets and pilgrams, crusaders and saints.
St. Francis of Assisi
He was born to wealthy italian family. Gave up his money to serve poor had respect for all living hthngs and lived a simple life
A rebirth, or revival, of artistic and intellectual activity.
The beginning of the Middle Ages. Little is known about this period of time. The unity, organization, govrnment, education, and high culture of the Roman Empire had been disrupted and lost by the 6th century.
An economic system characterized by the private ownership of property and the free exchange of goods and services in a competitive marketplace.
The cultural and political atmosphere that came into existence during the High Middle Ages in Europe when nearly everyone was Catholic and Catholicism influenced every aspect of people's lives
A political system in which a vasal works for a lord in exchange for lad and protection.
The moral code of conduct of knights
Knightly qualities such as valor fairness, courtesy, respect for women, and protection of the poor
The king of the Franks and ruler of the largest and most powerful realm in Europe. He was prayerful and devoted Christian and generous to the poor.
The Lombard king who Charlemagne defeated in 771 to become king of Lombard.
For 33 years, Charlemagne fought the ___________________, a pagan Germanic tribe in the Northeast until their defeat in 804.
In 786, Charlemagne ordered the beheading of ______________ saxons who refused to be baptized.
Charlemagne ushered in a period of cultural revival that would be known as ___________ ________________.
A court of justice.
The Song of Roland
French national epic about a brave member of Charlemagne's army. It portrays Roland as the ideal chivalric knight and Charlemagne as exercising a sacred kind of kingship, important because it reveals the popular image of Charlemage in later centuries
Pope St. Leo III
Driven out of Rome and given refuge by Charlesmagne. He later crowned Charlesmagne emperor of a new entity: the Holy Roman Empire.
Louis the Pious
Son of Charlesmagne. He was known for his high moral standards and generosity to the Church. Gave up throne in 840.
Treaty of Verdun
Sign in 843 by Louis the pious' three remaining sons--Charles, Louis, and Lothair ---that divided the empire into three parts.
Ruler of the French region of the Holy Roman Empire.
Ruler of the German region of the Holy Roman Empire.
Eldest son of Charlesmagne who was emperor of Italy, the ancestral homeland of the Franks along the Rhine River and the imperial lands of Lombardy and Rome.s
Germanic people from Noway, Sweden and Denmark.
The protagonist of an epic dark age poem who is a Geatish hero who fights the monster Grendel, Grendel's mother, and a fire-breathing dragon. ________________ boasts and encounters reveal him to be the strongest, ablest warrior around. In his youth, he personifies all of the best values of the heroic culture. In his old age, he proves a wise and effective ruler.
Northman who had become skilled seamen. great merchant traders and explorers, and ferocious warriors. They terrorized Europe beginning in 787. They were the most violent and destructive of all--murdering, looting and burning down churches.
Within 100 years of the Vikings first invasion, they had nearly taken over all of ________________.
King Alfred of Wessex
Unified England after leading the Anglo-Saxons against the invading Danes in 9th century. Worked out agreement in 878. The Danes would convert to Christianity.
The Vikings invaded ___________________ three times, once with a fleet of 700 ships.
Beginning in the 8th century, groups of Swedish Vikings descended south to Russia and founded _____________.
Trade treaty Oleg
Exacted from the Byzantine emperor made Kiev one of the major commercial centers in the Middle Ages.
In France, king Charles the Simple made an agreement with the __________ ____________ in 911. The Vikings stopped their attacks and converted to Christianity. This land became the duchy of Normandy.
the territory ruled by a duke or duchess
Supreme father of bishops in the Eastern Orthodox Church.
To cut off a person from the sacraments of the Church.
The ___________________ invaders eliminated the old Christian centers in Syria, Israel, and Egypt.
Because the East had only one patriarchal see, a new kind of rivalry emerged between _________________ and _______________________.
A strong and gloriously rich city, crowned by the beautiful cathedral, the Hagia Sophia.
The Pope in Rome and the Patriarch in Constantinople mutually excommunicated one another in ___________.
A person who has sworn allegiance to a lord.
A piece of land.
a person who lives on and farms land owned by another and who pays rent to the owner of the land.
Someone who is bound by law to the land and the servile class of his father.
Enemy of Constantinople and Rome.
A special band of soldiers who gave the chieftan protection and loyalty in return received generous rewards from the loot taken in war.
Because Charlemagne's descendants lacked his power and skill to keep the ______________ in line, this led to the breakup of the Holy Roman Empire.
Means a boy or personal servant. They actually were warriors on horseback, the cavalry of medieval times.
Early knights wore coats of _______________, small iron rings linked together.
A knight's chief weapon.
A stage to becoming a knight, at around teenhood, kinghts assistant, caring for horses, train with weapons, and go to battle. They usually became a knight at age 21.
Churchman who made up the third class in feudal society, being neither peasants nor nobility. They were divided into lower and higher.
He was not born but was mysteriously cast up by the sea. He formed the Round Table and his enchanted sword was Excalibur.
A council of knights formed by KIng Arthur where each knight was equal to the other.
King Arthur's enchanted sword that offered special protection to his people
The name Pope St. Gregory VII was born with.
Pope St. Gregory VII
A pope who fought against the right of kings to appoint bishops and thought that investiture was the main corruption in the Church
The year Pope Gregory was born.
The king who began a match with pope Gregory in 1075
The act of establishing in office a bishop
A journey to a shrine or other holy place for spiritual and devotional reasons. Christians have been making this journey to the Holy Land from as early as the 3rd century.
Pope Urban II
In 1095, at the Council of Clermont in France, _________________ addressed a great crowd with a plea: Let Christians take up arms in a holy war to win back Jerusalem and unite with their brothers in the East. His call, "God wills it!".
First and Sixth
After more than 200 years of warfare, only the _______ and ________ crusades achieved small success, but did not win possession of the Holy Lands from the Muslims.
During the Crusades, as the power of the feudal lords decreased, the power of the _____________ and the authority of the ______________increased.
The invention of this machine brought a period of greater wealth and cultural achievement.
A group of merchants or craftsman dedicated to protecting and furthering their individual trade.
A successful banking family in northern Italy that became as rich and powerful as a king.
A style of architecture during the late Middle Ages. Buildings of this style usually had rounded arches, thick walls, small windows, and colorful paintings, sculptures, and tapestries. Style dominated Europe until mid-12th century.
Style of Medieval building that flourished from 1200-1500. By using pointed arches, ribbed vaulting and flying buttresses, this style created an airy and well-lit space and gave masons, artists, and architects the freedom to adorn buildings with works of art. Two examples are Chartres Cathedral in France and Cologne Cathedral in Germany.
A cleric built the first Gothic building in 1140.
Began in 1066. Led by William the Conquerer. His military victory at the Battle of Hastings on Oct 14, 1066 led to Norman control of England.
The act of inheriting the throne of kingship.
A record of all the property and holdings in England commissioned by William the Conqueror in 1082 so he could determine the extent of his lands and wealth
A piece of linen 231 ft.long covered with embroidery representing the incidents of Willam the conqueror's expedition to England, preserved in the town museum of Bayeux in Normandy. It was commissioned by Bishop Odo.
king Henry II
Great grandson of William the Conqueror. He reinstituted administrative government and allowed common people to seek justice in courts. Married Elanor Aquitaine and ruled from 1154 to 1189
This law attempted to standardize punishments for crimes no matter where in the country they occurred or by whom committed, whether a noble or a freeman.
The archbishop of Canterbury, close friend of Henry who later opposed his attempt to bring Church/clergy into royal court system. Murdered by Henry's knights, then declare a saint by the Church.
Richard the LionHearted
Oldest son of King Henry II and Eleanor He was a courageous English King who led the 3rd crusade against Saladin to recapture the Holy Land. He was killed in battle in 1199.
Eleanor of Aquitaine
Queen of France as the wife of Louis VII. That marriage was annulled in 1152 and she then married Henry II and became Queen of England (1122-1204)
King John I
English king (1199) who tried to increase his power over the lords by demanding money from the lords to pay for the wars; forced to sign the Magna Carta in 1215. He was a poor king and the villain in the Robin Hood tales.
Legends favorite outlaw who stole from the rich and gave to the poor. Faithfully served King Henry and King Richard.
The Magna Carta
The "Great Charter"; an agreement signed in 1215 between King John of England and his nobles and clergy in which the king's power over nobles was limited. Led to the formation of the first parliament and the term "No taxation without representation."
A nobleman from Old Castile, Spain who risked his life to preach during the Albigensian Crusade. In 1214 took refuge near Toulouse and gained approval from Pope Honorius III in 1216 to set up a new order called the Dominicans to be mendicants or beggars. St. Thomas Aquinas was a well known Italian Dominican.
A religious person who relies on begging and charity to survive
St Francis of Assisi
He was born to wealthy italian family. Gave up his money to serve poor had respect for all living things and lived a simple life of solitude and prayer. He dreamed of converting the Muslims in Egypt but instead had the chance to meet their ruler, the sultan. He received the stigmata. Died at age 44 and declared a saint two years later.
Miraculous bodily wounds resembling those of the crucified Christ.
Patrones of television. Guided fellow nuns in a strict rule of gospel poverty. Died in 1253 and canonized two years later.
A covered cup that holds the Eucharistic wafers
A course of study in grammar, logic, and rhetoric.
A course of study in arithmetic, geometry, astronomy,and music.
The highest level of study, the queen of sciences, the queen of liberal arts, the university's central focus.
St. Thomas Aquinas
He was brilliant and was taught by St. Albert the Great (Albertus Magnus). He was known as the "Angelic Doctor". His most famous work is the Summa Theologica. He feel ill and died in 1274 on his way to the Council of Lyons. He was canonized in 1323 and named a doctor of the Church in 1567.
The epidemic form of bubonic plague experienced during the Middle Ages when it killed nearly half the people of western Europe. With fewer people to work the farms, those who were left had more power to demand freedom and money from landowners. This led to a rapid end of serfdom.
England, France, Spain
The three great nation-states that formed around feudal kingdoms bringing regions together to share a common language , code of law, and allegiance.
A well-organized , written argument.
Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II
In 1239, he was excommunicated after fighting with the pope. He moved his troops into the famous Benedictine monastery of Monte Cassino where the young Thomas of Aquino as been studying.