chapter 4 world history Egypt/Nubia

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what is bureacracy

system of offices and officials that the pharoahs relied on to handle the business of governments

what is the longest river?

Nile, over 3,500 miles long

Where is the Nile delta located?

Lower Egypt

How did they grow a surplus?

Built earthen walls to trap floodwaters and was a form of crop irrigation

who united the kingdoms of Upper and lower Egypt and became first pharoah and created dynasty

Narmer

what is a pharoah

a king of a united Egypt

What is a delta

is an area of sediment soil or minerals carried by water deposited at the mouth of a river

what is a dynasty

a ruling family

Who was the important god of all those worshipped by ancient Egyptians, also known as Sun God

Amon-Re

Who is the head of the bureaucracy

Vizier

Who was the woman ruler who followed all rituals expected as a king, built economy through trade?

Hatsheput

who was the ruler best known for the battles against the Hittite and for building more monuments during his reign?

Ramses II

Where was Upper Egypt

Area upstream from the Mediterranean Sea

The Egyptians called their rich, dark fertile soil, Kemet which means

the Black Land

Where does the White Nile flow into

Lake Victoria

Where does the Blue Nile run through

Ethiopia

How many cataracts did the Nile River have?

six

What color crown did kings of Upper Egypt wear

white crown

What color crown did kings of Lower Egypt wear

red crown

What was the Old kingdom

period of prosperity, political strength and cutural achievement

What was the Middle kingdom

dealt with the flooding of the Nile by building canals that could drain dangerous flood waters and irrigate new farmland

What was the New Kingdom

conquered lands in Asia and Africa

What was the Egyptian Society rankings or the Social Pyramid?

Pharoah on top, Nobles, priests and officials, scribes, merchants/artisans, then farmers/servants/slaves

The geography of ancient Egypt included vast desert areas of burning sands known as...

the Red Land

what is a mummy

a body preserved by a special process

Who usually were made into mummies>?

wealthy Egyptians

What was the soil of the Nile River Valley is best characterized as

fertile

What is Polytheism

gods shared qualities of animals - strength/speed

What did people obey Pharoahs?

Pharoah's were considered gods on Earth, they feared angering gods

Who was the god of the underworld?

Osiris

What did people believe about afterlife?

if you lived a good life, you will live forever, If you were sinful you would be destroyed

Where were poor people buried

in the desert, where their bodies were quickly dried out.

Why did Egyptians mummify their bodies

they believed that they needed to preserve their body have an afterlife

Why did Egypt trade with Nubia

They lacked forests, minerals, horses and other useful natural resources

Why did Egypt conquer Nubia

To control Nubia's riches,

Who were the candaces

queens, more powerful then the kings

What is commerce

buying and selling of goods and services

What is ivory

hard white material made from tusks

Trade between Nubia and Egypt created _________ since each country depended on the other for goods it did not have.

Interdependent

The Nubians created one of the world's first alphabets called ___________

Meriotic script

Which country had less land to farm

Nubia

What elements of Egyptian culture did Nubia adopt

Religion, they both saw kings as gods

Which pharoah boosted trade between Egypt and Nubia

Snerfu

What did Egyptians trade with Nubia?

Grain, cloth, papyrus, glass and jewelry

What did Nubia trade with Egypt?

gold and Elephant tusks

What Nubian king conquered Egyptian cities?

Piye or Piankhi

To control Nubia's riches, what did Egypt do?

Egypt conquered Nubia

Who did the Nubians have to pay tribute to?

the Pharoah

What is ebony

a black wood from West Africa

What was the geography of Nubia?

Deserts, less land, which meant less food

What was the land like in Egypt

Rich in sunshine and fertile soil, had grain

What did Nubia trade with Africa

Goods, cloth, gold ebony. Also sold slaves

What aspects of its culture did Nubia take from Egypt?

Gods and the use of pyramids

Because Nubians had less land to farm than Egyptians

they were more motivated to trade

What was the name of the calendar with 365 days developed by Egyptians to link the seasons to help farmers called?

solar calendar

What was the name of the officials that were able to share and preserve knowledge for the Egyptians?

scribes

What did Book of the Dead a well-known piece of Literature represent

served as a guide to the afterlife for dead souls.

Was the Nubian culture the same as Egypt's culture?

Not the same

In what ways did the Nile River contribute to ancient Egyptian civilization?

Annual Nile River floods, fertile farmland in Egypt, Egyptians kept a calendar based on the star, Sirius, cliffs along the Nile River Valley served as sites for tombs and temples

Why did Hatsheput succeed as a pharoah?

She did everything expected of a king

What were some important achievements of Egyptians

hieroglyphic writing, a solar and lunar calendar and pyramid building.

Skilled artists created paintings on the interior wall of the pyramids and burial chambers depicting daily Egyptian life primarily to

provide the person buried with servants and things they needed

In order to construct the pyramids, Egyptians needed to be proficient in what fields of learning?

engineering and mathematics

What were the pyramids of Giza build for?

Khufu, khafre and Menkaure

What difference between the civilizations of Egypt and Nubia were the Nile cateracts responsible for?

transportation

How were the Egyptians able to predict when the Nile would flood each year?

By watching the horizon for the star Sirius to appear

What is cataract?

group of rocky rapids

What is an artisan

a skilled worker who practices a handicraft

After Egypt destroyed Napata, what capital city did Nubians move to?

Meroe

What was papyrus?

a writing surface similar to paper named after the papyrus reed that grew along the Nile River in ancient Egypt

What is a pyramid?

a stucture with triangle sides, used as tombs for the pharoahs

What is anatomy

the structure of the human body and its organs

what is hieroglyphics

a system of writing that used drawing and symbols to represent words or sounds developed by the Egyptians

How did mummification advance the arts in Ancient Egypt?

It advanced medical knowledge

Where was Africa's first ironworking center located?

Meroe

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