Which of the following is an advantage to money targeting?
There is an immediate signal on the achievement of the target
If the relationship between the monetary aggregate and the goal variable is weak, then
monetary aggregate targeting will not work
Which of the following is NOT an element of inflation targeting?
An information-inclusive approach in which only monetary aggregates are used in making decisions about monetary policy
The first country to adopt inflation targeting was
The decision by inflation targeters to choose inflation targets _________ zero reflects the concern of monetary policymakers that particularly __________ inflation can have substantial negative effects on real economic activity.
The type of monetary policy regime that the Federal Reserve has been following in recent years can best be described as
policy with an implicit nominal anchor
The monetary policy strategy that provides the least accountability is
the implicit nominal anchor
Which of the following is a potential operating instrument for the central bank?
The monetary base
If the desired intermediate target is a monetary aggregate, then the preferred policy instrument will be a(n) __________ variable like the _________.
reserve aggregate; monetary base
The immediate (two-day) exchange of one currency for another is a
When te value of the British pound changes from $1.50 to $1.25, then the pound has _________ and the U.S. dollar has __________.
Everything else held constant, when a country's currency depreciates, its goods abroad become _________ expensive while foreign goods in that country become _________ expensive.
The _________ states that exchange rates between any two currencies will adjust to relect changes in the price levels of the two countries.
theory of purchasing power parity
The theory of PPP (purchasing power parity) suggests that if one country's price falls relative to another's, its currency should
appreciate in the long run
According to PPP (purchasing power parity), the real exchange rate between two countries will always equal _________.
As the relative expected return on dollar assets increases, foreigners will want to hold more _________ assets and less _________ assets, everything else held constant.
U.S. dollar; foreign currency
Suppose that the Federal Reserve enacts expansionary fiscal policy. Everything else held constant, this will cause the demand for U.S. assets to _________ and the U.S. dollar to _________.
The average number of times that a dollar is spent in buying the total amount of final goods and services produced during a given time period is known as
Because the quantity theory of money tells us how much money is held for a given amount of aggregate income, it is also a theory of
the demand for money
If the money supply is $500 and nominal income is $3,000, the velocity of money is
The view that velocity is constant in the short run transforms the equation of exchange into the quantity theory of money. According to the quantity theory of money, when the money supply doubles
nominal income doubles
Keynes hypothesized that the precautionary component of money demand was primarily determined by the level of
Keynes's theory of the demand for money implies that velocity is
not constant but fluctuates with movements in interest rates
If the government finances its spending by issuing debt to the public, the monetary base will _________ and the money supply will _________.
not change; not change
Of the three motives for holding money suggested by Keynes, which did he belive to be the most sensitive to interest rates?
The speculative motive
In the simple Keynesian model, equilibrium aggregate output is determined by
Because inflation was not a serious problem during the Great Depression, Keynes's analysis assumed
that the price level was fixed
The marginal propensity to consume (mpc) can be defined as the fraction of
a change in income that is spent
Assume that autonomous consumption equals $200 and that the mpc equals 0.8. If disposable income equals $1000, then total consumption equals
In the Keynesian framework, as long as output is above the equilibrium level, unplanned inventory investment will remain _________ and firms will continue to _________ production.
If the marginal propensity to consume is .9, the value of the consumption multiplier is
Points on the IS curve satisfy _________ market equilibrium.
Everything else held constant, if aggregate output is to the right of the IS curve, then there is an excess _________ of goods which will cause aggregate output to _________.
When the AD and AS curves are combined in the same diagram, the intersection of the two curves determines the equilibrium level of _________ as well as the _________.
aggregate output; inflation rate
A tax cut _________ disposable income, _________ consumption expenditure, and shifts the IS curve to the _________, everything else held constant.
increases; increases; right
The upward slope of the MP curve indicates that
the central bank raises real interest rates when inflation rises
An autonomous easing of monetary policy
shifts the monetary policy curve downward
In the long-run AD-AS model and with everything else held constant, the long-run effect of a tax cut is to _________ real output and _________ the interest rate.
not change; increase
When the financial crisis started in August 2007, inflation was rising and the Fed began an aggressive easing lowering of the federal funds rate, which indicated that
the monetary policy curve shifted downward
Everything else held constant, a decrease in autonomous planned investment spending will cause the IS curve to shift to the _________ and aggregate demand will _________.
The long-run rate of unemployment to which an economy always gravitates is the
natural rate of unemployment
Everything else held constant, a decrease in the cost of production _________ aggregate _________.
Suppose the economy is producing at the natural rate of output. An open market purchase of bonds by the Fed will cause _________ in real GDP in the long run and _________ in the aggregate price level in the long run, everything else held constant.
no change; an increase
According to aggregate demand and supply analysis, the negative demand shock of 2000-2004 had the effect of
decreasing aggregate output, raising unemployment, and lowering inflation
Everything else held constant, a decrease in government spending will cause the IS curve to shift to the _________ and aggregate demand will _________.
The economist who proposed that, "Inflation is always and everywhere a monetary phenomenon" was
Evidence strongly supposts the view that countries with high inflation also have
the highest rates of money growth
Demand-pull inflation can result when
a persisten budget deficit is financed by selling bonds to the central bank
When the economy is in a recession, the following policies may be used to regain long run equilibrium.
Monetary policy and Fiscal policy
When the economy is hit by a negative demand shock and the central bank pursues policies to increase aggregate demand to its initial level, then
inflation will be unchanged
If the economy suffers a permanent negative supply shock because there is an increase in regulations that permanently reduce the level of potential output, then
potential output falls, the long-run aggregate supply curve shifts leftward, and the short-run aggregate supply curve shifts upward
If workers do not belive that policymakers are serious about fighting inflation, they are most likely to push for higher wages, which will _________ aggregate _________ and lead to unemployment or inflation or both, everything else held constant.
Lucas argues that when policies change, expectations will change thereby
changing the relationships in econometric models
Arguments for adopting a monetary policy rule include
discretionary policies pursue overly expansionary monetary policies to boost employment in the short run but generate higher inflation in the long run
Suppose that there is a negative aggregate demand shock and the central bank takes expansionary monetary policy. But if the central bank is not credible, then
inflation will rise
The U.S. government can play an important role in establishing the credibility of anti-inflation policy by
demonstrating fiscal responsibility
Economic theory suggests that _________ interest rates are _________ important than _________ interest rates in explaining investment behavior.
real; more; nominal
The monetary transmission mechanism that links monetary policy to GDP through real interest rates and investment spending is called the
traditional interest-rate channel