Human Biology Final

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Pt. 1, up to muscular system

The reason cells stay small is most accurately stated as:

The surface area of a cell must heed exchange requirements.

The phospholipid bilayer that surrounds/maintains the integrity of a cell is called a:

Plasma membrane

The assisted transport of a molecule across the cell membrane without an expenditure of energy is known as:

Facilitated transport

An obvious dark-stained structure within the nucleus that contains ribosomal RNA is called the:

Nucleolus

The rough endoplasmic reticulum is important in the synthesis of...

proteins

The smooth endoplasmic reticulum is important in synthesizing...

phospholipids

Specialized cells that work together to perform a common function are called:

Tissues

Which of the following is considered a basic tissue type? (ALL)

1. epithelial, 2. connective, 3. muscle, 4. nervous

Which type of tissue covers body surfaces and lines body cavities?

Epithelial tissue

What type of tissue binds structures together and provides structural support?

Connective

The three major components of connective tissue are...

Cells, ground substance, and protein fibers

What protein provides flexibility and strength to connective tissues?

Collagen

What can be found at the ends of long bones, ribs, and respiratory passages?

Hyaline cartilage

Which of the following is not a function of the integument?

Production of white blood cells

What is responsible for the waterproofing of skin?

Keratin

Choose the correct statement regarding accessory organs of the integument...

Nails, hair, and glands are all structures of epidermal origin.

Choose the most correct statement concerning capillaries.

The only site of nutrient, gas exchange, and waste exchange is the capillaries.

What is the function of valves in the veins?

Prevent the backward flow of blood.

Choose the correct statement concerning the heart. (ALL)

1. The heart is cone-shaped, 2. The heart is about the size of a human fist, 3. the heart is normally tilted toward the left, 4. The heart is between the lungs

The two lower pumping chambers of the heart are known as the...

Ventricles

______ pressure occurs when the ventricles are relaxing and ____ occurs when the heart ejects blood.

Diastolic, systolic

What serve as a reservoir for blood?

Veins

The heart muscle is known as the:

Myocardium

The venae cavae carry low-oxygen blood to the ____ of the heart.

Right atrium

The major functions of the blood include:

1. Transporting oxygen, hormones, and nutrients, 2. Carrying waste products, 3. Regulating body temps and pH, 4. Fighting pathogens

RBC's are better known as what?

Erythrocytes

WBC's are better known as what?

Leukocytes

Which of the following are actually cell fragments and not whole cells?

Platelets

Hemoglobin is ALL of the following:

1. Found in RBC's, 2. An oxygen transporter, 3. Required for cellular respiration, 4. The pigment that makes blood red

Mature human RBC's are...

Biconcave discs without a nucleus.

The two major components of blood are:

Formed elements and plasma

_____ are organisms such as viruses and bacteria that are capable of causing disease.

Pathogens

_____ exist in some bacteria and prevent them from being destroyed by phagocytic WBC's and certain one-celled organisms.

Capsules

Under ideal conditions, some species of bacteria can double their numbers every 12 mins. This extraordinary ability is the result of bacteria being capable of:

Binary fission

The thymus becomes smaller with age as well as:

Helps T lymphocytes learn self from nonself

Identify the positive contributions of some bacteria (ALL)

1. Bacteria can serve as decomposers in the environment, 2. Bacteria are important in the wine, cheese, and bread industry, 3. Bacteria are important in biotechnology, 4. Some bacteria are beneficial residents of the digestive tract

An additional ring of DNA found in some bacteria is called a:

Plasmid

Choose the following statement that most accurately describes viruses. (ALL)

1. They contain a protein coat called a capsid, 2. They may contain genomic DNA or RNA, 3. They are acellular, 4. They are obligate intracellular parasites

Viruses are capable of multiplying in a host cell because:

Viral DNA instructs the cell to produce more of the virus

Prions cause degenerative diseases of which system?

Nervous

New viral pathogens can emerge when... (ALL)

1. They are transported to different parts of the world, 2. The virus mutates, 3. The virus can be transmitted by a new vector, 4. The immune system cannot recognize a change in the virus

The lymphatic system... (ALL)

1. Takes up excess tissue fluid, returns it to the bloodstream, 2. Absorbs fats in the intestines, 3. Helps the body defend against disease, 4. Includes the spleen, thymus, and tonsils

Lymphatic capillaries called _____ are located in the small intestines.

Lacteals

What is not included as a lymphatic organ?

Liver, kidney

Red bone marrow and the ____ are considered primary lymphatic organs.

Thymus

Lymph nodes and the _____ are considered secondary lymphatic organs.

Spleen

Immunity is based on the recognition of antibody-stimulating entities known as...

Antigens

ALL of the following are considered a nonspecific defense. (4)

1. Barriers to entry, 2. Inflammatory reaction, 3. Natural killer cells, 4. Protective proteins

In ____ immunity, the individual produces antibodies against particular pathogens.

Active

In ____ immunity, the individual is given specific antibodies against a pathogen.

Passive

After being exposed to a contagious disease, Jennifer has accumulated a high level of antibodies, yet shows no sign of illness. She is exhibiting:

Active immunity

Larry was immunized against most of the childhood diseases. This represents ___ immunity.

Active

What is not considered an accessory organ of the digestive system?

Small intestines

The functions of the digestive system include ALL of the following: (4)

1. To ingest food, 2. To digest food into small nutrients so that the molecules can pass through membranes, 3. To absorb nutrient molecules, 4. To eliminate indigestible remains

An infant has __ deciduous teeth and an adult has __ permanent teeth.

20, 32

When you hold a piece of bread in your mouth, what enzyme initiates the process of starch digestion?

Salivary amylase

The rhythmic contractions of the digestive tract that allow movement of foodstuffs are called:

Peristalsis

The ____ is a muscular tube that passes foodstuffs from the mouth to the stomach.

Esophagus

The primary function of the stomach is:

To store food, churn, begin digestion

Choose the correct statement concerning the stomach. (ALL, 4)

1. Pepsin is an enzyme that helps break down proteins, 2. The pH of the stomach is about 2, 3. Alcohol is absorbed by the stomach, 4. Mucus serves as a protective secretion in the stomach

The thick, soupy liquid of partially digested food that leaves the stomach is called:

Chyme

Hepatitis ___ is usually acquired through tainted blood. It can lead to chronic hepatitis, liver failure and death. There is no vaccine.

C

Which is not considered a part of the upper respiratory tract?

Bronchus

Which is not considered a part of the lower respiratory tract?

Glottis

The process of filtering or removing dust and other particles in the upper respiratory tract is accomplished by ALL of the following (3):

1. Mucous, 2. Nasal hairs, 3. Cilia

The respiratory gases diffuse through:

Capillaries

Which is not a part of the pharynx?

Mesopharynx

____ in the pharynx are actually a part of the lymphatic system.

Tonsils

The ____ houses the vocal cords.

Larynx

The windpipe is more accurately called the...

Trachea

What is the correct sequence of air movement during inspiration?

Pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles

Each lobe consists of a ____ that serves many alveoli.

Bronchiole

The urinary system is important in the regulation of ALL these...(3)

1. Water content of the body, 2. Blood volume of the body, 3. pH of the blood

Excretion primarily rids the body of...

Substances that were involved in metabolism

The function of the urethra is to connect the urinary bladder to the:

Exterior of the body

The tube that transports urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder is the:

Ureter

What is the primary nitrogenous end product of humans?

Urea

The process of elimination of soluble metabolic wastes is called:

Excretion

What is not a function of the urinary system?

Production of leukocytes

The higher the concentrations of salts in the blood, the ____ the blood volume and the ____ the blood pressure.

Greater, higher

In the kidneys, _____ serve to filter blood and produce urine.

Nephrons

Which is not one of the three steps involved in urine formation?

Countercurrent mechanism

Scott does not understand why alcohol consumption increases urine production. How can this phenomenon be simply explained?

Alcohol inhibits ADH causing diuresis.

To stimulate RBC production, the kidneys will secrete the hormone...

Erythropoietin

Hemodialysis may be used to accomplish ALL of the following: (3)

1. Remove nitrogenous wastes from the blood, 2. Remove toxins from the blood, 3. Add bicarbonate ions to the blood

The majority of bones in the human body are formed through...

Endochondral Ossification

The shaft of a long bone is called the...

Diaphysis

Identify the major functions of the skeletal system. (ALL, 4)

1. Gives the body support and shape, 2. Protects vital organs, 3. Produces blood cells, 4. Stores essential minerals

The axial skeleton consists of 80 bones that include ALL of the following (3):

1. The skull, 2. The vertebral column, 3. The hyoid bone and ribcage

Compact bone is composed of tubular units called...

Osteons

The bone tissue that contains many large spaces filled with red marrow is called...

Spongy bone

Bone cells are called...

Osteocytes

Cartilage cells are called...

Chondrocytes

What is the continued erosion and replacement of bone tissue?

Remodeling

Soon after a fracture, blood escapes from ruptured blood vessels and forms a...

Hematoma

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