What makes defining abnormality difficult?
There is no clear dividing line that serves to distinguish different behavior from that which is abnormal.
Which of the following is a disadvantage of having a classification system for mental disorders?
When a label is used to describe an individual's behavior information is lost.
In the United States the standard for defining types of mental disorders is contained in the:
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
What is the most prevalent kind of psychological disorder?
In ancient times one of the treatments for abnormal behavior that consisted of prayer, incantations, and noise-making were all techniques for:
The approaches to treatment of the mentally ill during the Middle Ages in Europe are best characterized as:
What is "mass madness"?
an exhibition of disordered behavior by a group of people that appears to be caused by hysteria
If you visited an asylum in the 16th Century Europe like Bedlam you would likely find:
mentally ill people living in conditions of fifth and cruelty
believed that mental patients were ill and needed to be treated as such with kindness and caring
Who increased the availability of treatment for the mentally ill in the US
What classified twentieth century treatment of mental patients
What is the most important limitation of correlation studies
They cannot determine cause and effect.
In a study of ice cream on mood, the ice cream can be described as what?
the independent variable
In a study of the effects of ice cream on the mood, the mood after ice cream exposure can be described as what?
the dependent variable
A predisposition towards developing a disorder is called:
Suppose that low self-esteem is a diathesis for developing depression later in life. This mean that:
people with low self-esteem have a predisposition for developing depression
When psychologists say that a person shows resilience it means
the person can successfully adapt and survive in threatening circumstances
Dr. Simon, a psychiatrist, takes a biopsychosocial viewpoint of psychopathology. What focus for treatment is he most likely to suggest for Julia's current state of depression?
that the person can successfully adapt and survive in threatening circumstances
The site of communication between two neurons is the
Which of the following elements of the personality can be described as impulsive and selfish? ideal self, superego, ego, id
Freud's view of mental disorders was that they were a result of
unresolved conflicts between the id, the ego and the superego
Newer psychodynamic perspectives
do not view the libido as a primary determinant of behavior
After being bitten by a dog, Jose finds that he feels afraid whenever he sees a dog. In classical conditioning terms, the dog can be described as a(n)
Due to ________, we can learn from the experiences of others.
Behaviorists suggest maladaptive behavior can be a result of
failure to learn adaptive behaviors
Cognitive-behavioral psychologists believe that abnormal behavior
results from distorted thinking and information processing
A psychologist who studied the relationship between sociocultural factors and mental disorders would be most likely to study
poverty and racial discrimination
A person comes to a mental health professional with a certain complaint. The professional attempts to understand the nature and extent of the problem. This process is called:
What role does the social context play in assessment:
an evaluation of the environment in which the client lives in necessary in order to understand the demands he faces, as well as the supports that are present
Dr. Kim is a psychologist who uses a number of tests to measure a person's cognitive, perceptual, and motor performance to detect brain damage. Dr. Kim is probably a specialist in using
Ed has suffered a head injury in a car accident. He is referred to a psychologist to see what types of impairment now exist and to get some suggestions for treatment. The best assessment strategy would be
A psychosocial assessment typically begins with
A clinical psychologist notes that a client wears his clothes inside out, that his hair is matted, and there is dirt under his fingernails. This information is known as
What would determine whether the WISC-III or the WAIS-III is used to test intelligence?
age of the client
"Projective" and "objective" are two types of ______tests.
which of the following is an objective test? MMPI-2, sentence-completion, rorschach test, thematic appreciation
Why is classification a necessary first step in developing an understanding about abnormal behavior?
communication about abnormal behavior can not be effective unless what is being discussed in clear
During an assessment interview, Dr. Poole noted that Jane's boss at work was harassing her. On which of the five axes of the DSM would this information be noted?
One criticism of diagnostic labels is that
they can influence both other people's and the diagnosed person's perception of themselves in negative ways
a response to a happy life event
What do eustress and distress have in common?
both tax ones resources and coping skills
The "fight" or "flight" response
is made possible by the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system
Give an example of task-oriented coping
leaving the cheating spouse
Give examples of defense-oriented coping
denial, repression, crying
Megan's boyfriend suddenly broke up with her. Megan spends most evenings crying. She calls her friends over and over to talk about the relationship and the break-up, to the point that her friends are beginning to dread talking to her. How is Megan reacting to this stress?
using a defense-oriented response to stress
develop in response to normal life events
Acute stress disorder becomes PTSD when:
the symptoms last for more than 4 weeks
vary considerably depending on the characteristics of the trauma and the victim
Describe what the use of stress-inoculation training may be most effective:
preparing for chemotherapy
Provide an example of direct therapeutic exposure
visiting an accident site
Fear or panic is a basic emotion that involves
the activation of the "fight" or "flight" response
What are the seven primary types of anxiety
1) obsessive-compulsive disorder
Martin is afraid to fly. He knows his boss wants him to take a trip for the business. Martin feels miserable, because he wants to keep his job but cannot even imagine getting on a plane. The most likely diagnosis for Martin is
specific phobia, situation type
Kayla has just started college and wants to make friends. She refuses to go to large parties because she is afraid that she will blush and sweat, and that other people will laugh at her. She is fine talking to people in one-on-one settings. Kayla's most likely diagnosis is
Compared to anxiety, panic is
Panic disorders are often misdiagnosed because
symptoms are so somatic they are treated by physicians for medical problems
Mrs. B. tells her psychologists, "I cannot leave a certain region around my home without having terrible fears. I am terribly worried when I am in a car or bus. I am afraid I will have another one of those terrifying experiences." What disorder does Mrs. B probably have and what experience is she talking about?
the disorder is agoraphobia, the experience is a panic attack
Amber feels anxious almost all the time. She finds herself worrying that her husband will leave her (although he has never shown any indication that he would), that she chose the wrong job, that her children might not be safe at their school and that she might get sick and leaver her family in financial ruin. She calls her husband almost everyday to find out when he will be home. She complains to her physician that she is always tired but cannot sleep or relax. Amber's most likely diagnosis is
generalized anxiety disorder
Persistent and recurrent thoughts are
Most people with obsessive-compulsive disorder
experience both obsessions and compulsions
What provides a unique challenge when trying to eliminate the obsessions seen in OCD?
attempting to not think about something may lead to thinking about it more
probably exist in all societies, but take different forms in different cultures
Conditions involving physical complaints or disabilities occurring in the absence of any physical pathology that could account for them are
List some somatoform disorders
Consciously faking symptoms is characteristic of
Jessica spends much of her day counting or saying certain words to herself. When she is not doing this, she is checking whether she left her doors unlocked. These symptoms illustrate
Evan is terrified because he is convinced that he has a terminal heart condition. He has consulted with several physicians about it who have found no evidence if any heart disease. Interestingly, Evan feels disappointed when the doctors find no physical problem. His diagnosis is probably
Kristie is talking to a career counselor at college. She suddenly announces that it is pointless to discuss jobs, when she knows that her face is incredibly hideous due to her huge number of acne scars. The counselor is surprised, because, while she can barely see a couple of scars at Kristie's hairline, they were not noticeable until Kristie pointed them out. It is probably that Kristie suffers from
body dysmorphic disorder
The disorder involving the experience of sudden loss of the sense of self is
Gerard became amnesic, wandered away from home and assumed a completely new identity as a shoe salesman. He suffers from
Dissociative identity disorder was formerly known as
multiple personality disorder
Brigid had been diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder. Brigid is the host personality. We can expect that the alter identities
are strikingly different from Brigid
Which of the following summarizes the post-traumatic theory for the origin of DID?
Children deal with severe abuse by creating alters who provide an "escape"
The treatment goal for most therapists who treat dissociative identity disorder is
integration of the alter personalities
Historically, why has little attention been paid to childhood psychopathology
childhood disorders were viewed as childhood versions of adult disorders
What protects children from environmental stressors, but also makes them more vulnerable?
dependence on adults
George is in 2nd grade and is having trouble. He frequently is out of his seat, looking at the work of other students and annoying them by making comments. He interrupts the teacher, blurts out answers before she finishes the question and usually needs directions repeated multiple times. At home, his mother says he is always "on the go". The most likely diagnosis for George is
Treatment of ADHD with drugs such as Ritalin is thought to be effective as it
increases the ability to concentrate
What two childhood disorders are characterized by aggressive or antisocial behavior?
oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder
The families of children with conduct disorders typically
involve rejection and neglect
The most common childhood anxiety disorder is ______.
Suicidal behavior in children and adolescents
may be increased by taking SSRIs or anti-depressants
Asperger's disorder is
similar to but less sever than autism
In autistic children, head banging, spinning in circles, and rocking are behaviors that
are common forms of self-stimulation
The most widely known and studied learning disorder is
One of the most important factors in the treatment of children and adolescents is
parental willingness to be involved in treatment
The majority of cases of schizophrenia begin in
late adolescence and early adulthood
Give an example of delusion
thinking others have control over your thoughts
Give a common type of hallucination associated with schizophrenia
ignoring the voices in your head
If a schizophrenic giggles a lot, acts silly, and talks "baby talk", and he/she is experiencing auditory hallucinations and bizarre delusions, the most likely belong to what subtype?
Central features to catatonic schizophrenia are
excited/stuporous motor symptoms
Central features to paranoid schizophrenia are
having delusions of grandeur
a significant loss of contact with reality
What characterizes current knowledge of schizophrenia
while much is known about the causes, there are many questions still to be answered
A family feature important to schizophrenia
level of expressed emotion (EE)
Most people with schizophrenia
continue to show signs of illness
First-generation of conventional antipsychotics work by
Extrapyrimidal side effects
are involuntary (motor) movements that result mainly from taking first-generation antipsychotic drugs.
What remains a cross-cultural similarity of sexual behavior
taboos on sex between close relatives
persistent sexual behavior patterns in which unusual objects or situations are required for sexual satisfaction
People with transvestic fetishism
are usually heterosexual; but yearn for women's clothes and to dress like a woman
Most common sexual offense reported by police
The _______enjoys inflicting pain, while the ______ desires pain and degradation.
People with gender identity disorder
wish they were the opposite sex; feel they inhabit the wrong sexed body
Adults with gender identify disorder are usually referred to as
The only treatment for gender dysphoria is
surgical sex reassignment
Pedophilia frequently involves
fondling of children
The most common form of incest is between
brother and sister
involve the impairment of either the desire for sexual gratification or the ability to achieve it
Which phase of the sexual response is there a characteristic sense of well-being and relaxation
Describe someone with a personality disorder
difficult to be around; unpredictable behavior; annoying to others; doesn't learn from bad experiences; usual present in adolescence
Behavioral patterns of people with personality disorder are thought to be
consistent over time, with little adaptation to new kinds of experiences
"Clusters" of personality disorders found in the DSM-IV-TR are grouped based on
What are Cluster B personality disorders
narcissistic, histrionic, borderline
Describe someone with paranoid personality disorder
suspicious and doubts loyalty; unwilling to forgive perceived insults and never forgets a grudge
Central problem with schizoid paranoia
inability to form attachments to other people
Describe someone with histrionic personality disorder
vain and self-centered; ensures center of attention; drama queen; behaviors are sufficient enough to be classified as Axis II diagnosis
Describe someone with narcissistic personality disorder
believes that they are better at things than they are; anyone who doesn't like them is jealous of their superior intelligence; entitled to be exempted from tasks that everyone else must do because they are so great
Which personality disorder is more common in men than women, and involves the exploitation of others without remorse
antisocial personality disorder
Describe someone with a borderline personality disorder
idealizes men and then is afraid of abandonment; feelings of emptiness change into reckless acts of promiscuity, gambling, and suicide attempts; never has a sense of self
Contrast avoidant personality disorder to schizophrenia
people with avoidant personality disorder are extremely upset by their lack of social relationships
Describe someone with dependent personality disorder
calls spouse everyday at work; spends days with parents because afraid something will go wrong at home that they can't handle; doesn't think they are good at anything
Why is it such a challenge to treat a personality disorder
they are defined by enduring patterns of thought and behavior
Anorexia can lead to
Commonalities between people diagnosed with anorexia and bulimia nervosa are
fear of being or becoming fat
When are most eating disorders diagnosed
teens and early 20s
A common sign of bulimia nervosa; purging type
damaged teeth and mouth ulcers
Why are whites at a higher risk for eating disorders
body dissatisfaction; media
Which neurotransmitter is involved in both eating disorders and depression
The influence of television on the attitudes towards eating in Fiji demonstrate that
environmental factors such as exposure to western media can alter societal attitudes such that the risk of developing eating disorders is increased
Families of people with anorexia
exhibit tendencies towards perfectionism
Common among families of girls with anorexia is
parents who emphasize rules, control, and good physical appearance
Discuss the body image perspective as it differs between men and women
young women are more likely to be dissatisfied than young men
Current knowledge of the efficacy of treating eating disorders is
much more detailed for anorexia nervosa than for bulimia nervosa
Obesity in the US
is increasing as it is in many other countries