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Anthony is given a list of 20 objects to memorize in order. Anthony imagines a walk from home to school and pictures one of the objects on each street corner. What technique of memory is Anthony probably using?

visual imagery encoding

Categorizing information based on relationships among the items in a series to be remembered is the definition of

organizational encoding

Laura was cycling and had an accident. After she recovered, Laura couldn't remember the things that occurred immediately before or after the accident. Laura is experiencing a mild case of

retrograde amnesia

The strengthening of synaptic connections that result in more efficient processing of information in the brain is known as:

long-term potentiation

Scuba divers who attempt to memorize a list of words on a boat will subsequently remember more of those words when tested:

on a boat

Long-term memory can be broken up into two broad types; memory that requires conscious recall, referred to as_____ memory, and memory that does not require conscious recall, or ______ memory

explicit; implicit

When Paul studies for a psychology test, he tries to remember important terms by relating them to his past experiences and knowledge. He is using the strategy of:

elaborative encoding

Eric has suffered damage to his hippocampus. His family notices that he is now unable to recall normal events that occur in daily life and that he seems lost and disoriented most of the time. Eric's _____ memory has apparently been affected by the hippocample damage.

episodic

Even though Carrie was only 5 years old when her grandmother died, she still clearly remembers exactly where she was and what she was doing when her parents told her the devastating news, an example of _____ memory.

flashbulb

The tendency to incorporate misleading information from outside sources into personal recall of events is called

suggestibility

The distorting influence of present knowledge, beliefs, and feelings on the recall of previous experiences is called:

bias

Your friend tells you her phone number. Hearing, thinking about, and translating the phone number to place it in your memory is an example of which of the following processes?

encoding

Divided attention is to ________ as the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon is to ______.

absentmindedness; blocking

Pavlov's dogs learned to salivate to a particular tone but not to other similar tones and buzzers. This process is called

discrimination

When your dog's veterinarian advised you to feed your dog in the morning instead of in the evening, it took several days for your dog to stop salivation late in the afternoon as you stirred around in the kitchen. This is an example of

extinction

Not only did Little Albert learn to fear white rats, he also cried when presented with Santa Claus mask or a seal-fur coat. This behavior was the result of:

stimulus generalization

An experienced user who takes heroin in a new setting has an increased risk of overdose because:

the CS that triggers the compensatory CR is degraded or absent altogether

Rescorla and Wagner originated which of the following theories?

Classical conditioning occurs only when the animal has learned to set up an expectation

John Garcia and his colleagues, as a result of their studies, came to conclude that the cancer patients who experienced nausea after treatments developed a taste aversion to the foods they had eaten earlier. The technique they developed for minimizing this negative effect involved:

giving a patient unusual foods, such as coconut or root-beer flavored candy, at the end of their last meal before undergoing treatment.

The idea that behaviors followed by a "satisfying state of affairs" tend to be repeated and those that produce an "unpleasant state of affairs" are less likely to be repeated is know as

Thordike's law of effect

When something desirable is presented upon the occurrence of a behavior, and as a result that behavior is stregthened, ____ has happened

positive reinforcement

Booker has a really bad headache, and so he takes a new painkiller. The drug works wonderfully to relieve his headache. The next time Booker has a headache, he definitely will take that drug. Booker's behavior of taking the new drug has been

negatively reinforced

Shaping reinforces______ behavior sequences until the overall sequence of behavior get performed reliably

smaller

Tolman's experiments with rats and mazes strongly suggest that:

there is a cognitive component to operant learning

Which of the following statements about observational learning is TRUE

Preschool children can learn a skill via observation and then can successfully model this skill to other preschool children

Habitual is a general process in which repeated exposure to a stimulus results in a gradual ______ in responding to that stimulus. Developmental psychologists use habituation to test whether infants perceive a difference between an original visual stimulus and a new stimulus by noting whether they _____ when the new stimulus is introduced

reduction; look more

Baby Denisha learned to call her family's dog a "woof woof." Her parents were surprised when she pointed to a cow and said "woof woof." Jean Piaget would say that Denisha was making use of the process of

assimilation

Jack is an infant who loves to play peek-a-boo with his father. He seems amazed that his father "reappears" after hiding his face behind his hands. Jack probably enjoys peek-a-boo because he does not yet understand

object permanence

Elsa and Ariela were discussing what might happen if the United States were to elect a woman president. It is likely they are in the _______ stage of cognitive development

formal operational

Daniel does not communicate well with others. As a result, he has few friends and does not understand the emotions of others. Although he has profound social deficits, his score on a standardized intelligence test was in the normal range. Daniel probably has which of the following disorders

autism

According to John Bowlby, babies are born with behaviors such as crying, smiling, and cooing in order to:

make it more likely that the primary caregiver remains close to them

In the strange situation, 1-year-old Mei Ling mildly protests her mother's departure, seeks interaction with her mother when the two are reunited, and is readily comforted by her mother. Mei Ling is showing a(n) ______ attachment style

secure

A large study of North American children who spent time in day care found that the quality of attachment between children and their mothers was influenced most strongly by:

the mothers sensitivity and responsiveness

Dara exhibits an ambivalent style of attachment. Which bests describes the behavior of her mother, Kendra?

Kendra inconsistently attends to Dara only when Dara shows obvious signs of emotional distress.

Recent research on the brains of adolescents indicates that development in the prefrontal cortex undergoes a ______ just before puberty and a(n) _______ during adolescence

synaptic proliferation; synaptic pruning

Over the last century, the age at which people physically become an adult has________ and the age at which people assume adult responsibilities has ________.

decreased; increased

The identical twin of a gay man has a 50% chance of being gay, but the fraternal twin of a gay man has only a 15% chance of being gay. This suggests that:

genetic factors play a large role in influencing sexual orientation in men

Oler adults show a much more pronounced decline in ______ memory that in ______ memory

working; long term

People's overall happiness generally _____ with age.

increases

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