the great compromise
established a legislature with equal state representation in the senate and representation by state population in the house
under the 3/5ths compromise
each slave would count as three-fifths of a person for purposes of representation.
article III of the constitution
creates the Supreme Court but allows Congress to establish lower courts.
the 'necessary and proper clause'
is used by Congress to justify the exercise of powers not mentioned in Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution.
Federal funds provided to states for a broad purpose and unrestricted by detailed requirements are called
sam Houston was elected president
Which of the following events followed the forming of the Republic of Texas?
the issue of slavery
The question of whether the United States should annex Texas, was heavily influenced by
the size of the state makes it difficult to create political organizations and gives an advantage to those who can "stand out."
Texas has a history of electing "colorful" governors such as "Pa" Ferguson and "Pappy" O'Daniel because
it led to the writing of a constitution that is still in use in Texas today.
The rise of the Grange and the Redeemers was important because
The reallocation of congressional seats among the states every ten years, following the census, is known as
the house ways and means committee
Which of the following is the extremely powerful congressional committee that determines when debate on a bill will take place
The process of redrawing congressional districts to match population shifts in states with more than one representative is called
a conference committee is formed to bridge the gap between the bills
When different versions of the same bill pass in the House and the Senate,
within congressional standing committees
Most of the hard work of considering legislative alternatives and drafting legislation occurs
Redrawing congressional district boundaries to favor a particular group or party is known as
the governor may call special sessions of the legislature
Which of the following is a basic characteristic of Texas Legislature?
hybrid of citizen and professional legislature
The author discusses typologies of state legislatures. Which type describes Texas?
the party caucuses are important organizations for structuring votes in the legislature
All of the following statements concerning organization in the Texas Legislature are true except
the legislature is less likely to manage the state budget, handle new issues, and review actions of the executive.
The significance of the length and frequency of legislative sessions of the Texas Legislature is
legislators often work in professions or industries that have a vested interest in state policy.
A major consequence of the low pay and part-time nature of legislative life in Texas is that
one person, one vote
The drawing of district boundaries for legislative districts in the Texas Legislature must follow the rule of
The description of the redistricting process in Texas for the Texas Legislature and for the U.S. House of Representatives leads to the conclusion that the process is
the use of ghost votes and closed riders.
If you attended a session of the Texas Legislature while floor votes were being taken, you might be mislead as to what is happening by
the problem created for the Texas Senate by the requirement of two-thirds majority to pass most bills.
The story of the "killer bees" illustrates
most heavily concentrated in the offices of Speaker of the House and President of the Senate.
Power in the Texas Legislature is
rise of public expectations of the president
The _________ is dated from the administration of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
treason, bribery, and other high crimes and misdemeanors.
The official constitutional grounds for presidential impeachment are
appointees heading each major department in the executive branch.
the president's cabinet is composed of the
they have gone to war when public opinion backed them.
Presidents have been able to ignore the restrictions on their ability to go to war contained in the War Powers Act because
two-thirds approval from the Senate.
In the United States, treaties are negotiated by the president and require
Presidents have had the line item veto since 1995.
All of the following statements concerning the president's veto power are true EXCEPT
experience predictable shifts in their popularity over the course of their presidency.
The cycle effect refers to the tendency for presidents to
the popularity of the first lady.
The president's public approval rating tends to be affected by all of the following EXCEPT
head of government; head of state.
Presidents must play the role as _____ in order to solve problems, but that requires them to behave in ways that conflict with their role as __________.
insulate the president from the masses.
According to the textbook, the framers adopted the Electoral College as a way to
four-year term with no limit on terms served
Which of the following describe the terms of service for office of governor?
having to have served in the military.
All of the following statements concerning the constitutional requirements for serving as Governor of Texas are true except
full disclosure of all campaign contributions made to candidates for public office.
Sunshine laws in Texas require all of the following except
determine the length of special legislative sessions.
In Texas the governor can do all of the following except
nothing—the Constitution is silent on the grounds for impeachment
The Texas Constitution lists _________ as grounds for impeachment of the governor.
any gubernatorial appointee have the approval of their own state senator.
Senatorial courtesy requires that
The practice in which successful party candidates reward supporters with jobs or favors is known as
the president's cabinet.
The fifteen departments that make up the major subdivisions of the federal government also represent
_________ refers to bureaucrats' authority to use their own judgment in interpreting and carrying out the laws of Congress.
publish the proposed regulations in the Federal Register and hold hearings on them.
Before it can implement new regulations, a regulatory agency must
through the close scrutiny given to specific agencies by specific congressional subcommittees.
Congress exercises control over the bureaucracy
phenomenon of members of interest groups, congressional committees, and bureaucratic agencies cooperating for mutual benefit.
The term "iron triangles" refers to the
the Kenneth Meier Act.
All of the following are designed to enhance citizen influence over the bureaucracy EXCEPT
because Congress often passes very general laws that require clarification before they can be enforced.
The bureaucracy engages in the lawmaking process
Groups of citizens whose interests are affected by an agency and who work to influence its policies are called
a firm commitment to using plain, easy-to-understand language.
The bureaucratic culture includes all of the following EXCEPT
make decisions with accountability and fairness but also with a lot of red tape.
Because bureaucracies are so rule based, they
wasteful and inefficient policy decisions.
The desire by agencies to maintain total control over their own resources and policy decisions, rather than cooperating with other agencies, can lead to
most private bureaucracies have the explicit goal of making money, so accountability is straightforward.
The fundamental difference between most private bureaucracies and public bureaucracies is that
subject key policy decisions to the consideration of the general public.
Citizen advisory councils are established to
create standardization and predictability.
The value of explicit rules in bureaucratic institutions is that they
by contributing to the campaigns of congressional allies
The Supreme Court is deeply involved in politics in each of the following ways EXCEPT
a petition by the losing side in a lower court for the Supreme Court to hear an appeal.
A writ of certiorari is
gives some power to the minority on the Court.
The Rule of Four is significant to the balance of power among Supreme Court justices because it
they may influence whether the Supreme Court decides to hear a case.
Amicus curiae briefs are significant because
conservatives have argued that judges are acting as legislators on issues such as same-sex marriage.
Judicial activism has become an important political issue because
is the Texas Supreme Court and the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals
Texas' highest appellate court level
District Courts have original criminal jurisdiction in all felony cases
Which of the following are characteristics of District Courts in Texas?
shared between levels of government
Judicial federalism describes a system in which judicial authority is ______.
monetary awards to the injured party
Punitive damages relate to each of the following except ________.
Local trial courts in Texas handle cases involving not more than $5,000
Which of the following are characteristics of local trial courts in Texas?
_______ voting occurs when people use their judgment of the current political situation along with the past performance of the incumbents.
local party members who choose delegates for the national convention.
A party caucus is a meeting of
the opinion poll spike that most candidates enjoy immediately after the convention.
The term "convention bump" refers to
vote their conscience rather than for the candidate they were pledged to support in the Electoral College.
Faithless electors, as defined by the text, are electors who
In Texas, citizens must register to vote at least thirty days before an election.
Which of the accurately describe voter registration requirements?
Which of the following barriers to voting were primarily used against Hispanics in Texas?
the election contest excludes supporters of other political parties
In a closed primary election _________.
Early voting is permitted without giving a specific reason since 1998.
Which of the following statements describe early voting in Texas?
Through appointment by the governor
Which of the following are not ways of getting one's name on the ballot in Texas?
To young voters in lowering the voting age to eighteen
Texas extended voting rights to which of the following groups even before federal laws were passed?
The party _______ are the members of a political party who consistently vote for that party's candidates.
substantial and long-term shift in party allegiance by individuals and groups, usually resulting in a change in policy direction.
Realignment refers to a
free rider problem
Many interest groups face the _______ when recruiting members who can gain the benefits of their activities whether or not they join.
some of the most effective lobbyists are former government officials.
The "revolving door" exists because
to build cohesion between the state party and the directives of the national party
Which of the following is not a function of political parties?
Democratic Party support has dominated election results for most of the state's history
Which of the following accurately describe the development of political parties in Texas?
A federal program that guarantees benefits to qualified recipients is a(n) _____ program.
A ______ is a financial incentive given by the government to corporations, individuals, or other governments.
The use of interest rates to control the money supply in order to regulate the economy is known as _______ policy.
______ is the imposition of trade barriers, especially tariffs, to make trading conditions favorable to domestic producers.
National Security Council.
The president's inner circle of foreign policy advisers that includes such people as the secretaries of state and defense and the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is the