How does the lymphatic system operate with the cardiovascular system?
Lymphatic vessels help this system by collecting excess fluid surrounding tissues and returning it to the cardiovascular system.
Where is blood "refreshed"?
in the lung, kidneys, small intestine, and liver.
The major pathway of blood.
Heart Arteries Arterioles Capillaries Venules Veins
3 layer composition of arteries and arterioles.
Thin, one-cell thick, inner epithelium. Thick, middle smooth muscle layer. Outer connective tissue.
How are arterioles different from arteries?
Arterioles are smaller arteries that regulate blood pressure.
What are capillaries and their function?
Microscopic vessels between arterioles and venules. Their function is:
Differences between veins/venules and arteries/arterioles.
Form beds of vessels where exchange with body cells occurs. Combined large surface area.
What are venules?
are small veins that receive deoxygenated blood from the capillaries.
3 layer composition of veins and venules.
Inner endothelium Middle smooth muscle layer - thinner in veins than arteries Outer connective tissue - thicker in veins than arteries.
4 chambers of the heart and the pathway of blood flow.
The 4 chambers are: The upper chambers are called the left and right atria, and the lower chambers are called the left and right ventricles.
Pulmonary and Systemic Circuits of blood flow.
The right side of the heart that brings blood from the body to the heart and lungs. The left side of the heart that brings blood to the rest of the body.
How is blood pressure measured?
Measured with a sphygmomanometer (and a stethoscope).
Which occurs as the top number in BP measures (systolic or diastolic)?
Where and when is blood pressure the highest?
The higher pressure during ventricular systole is systolic pressure.
3 ways in which venous blood flow is helped.
1. Skeletal muscle contraction 2. Breathing 3. Valves
What is atherosclerosis and what diseases is it associated with?
A build up of plaque (cholesterol, platelets) in blood vessels. Associated with a stroke, heart attack, and aneurysm.
What is a stroke and its symptoms?
Part of the brain dies dues to lack of oxygen. Symptoms may occur including numbness of hands or face, paralysis, difficulty speaking, and inability to see from one eye.