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WWII

Stalin

Totalitarian leader in the Soviet Union
Replaced private farms with gov't owned farms
purged millions of people who protested his gov't

Totalitarian gov't

a gov't led by a single party or dictator, that controls the economic, social, and cultural lives of its people

Mussolini

fascist leader of Italy
called Il Duce
eventually executed in 1945

Fascism

stressed extreme nationalism and palced the interests of the state above the rights of the people.

Hitler

Der Fuher
leader of the Nazi Party in Germany
established the Third Reich

Nazism

1. German fascism, unite all German speaking peoples
2. Racial purification - Aryan = master race
3. National expansion - "lebensraum" (living space)

lebensraum

living space

Third Reich

Third German Empire

Franco

leader of the Fascist rebellion in Spain

appeasement

the policy of conceding to an enemy in hopes of maintaining peace

Neutrality Acts

banned loans and the sale of arms to countries at war or civil war

Sudetenland

border region between Germany and Czechoslovakia, Hitler gained it in the Munich Agreement

Churchill

Prime Minister of Great Britain during the majority of WWII
had a close relationship with FDR

Nonaggression pact

signed between the Soviet Union and Germany stating that the countries would not attack each other and would split Poland

Blitzkrieg

"lightning attack" - effective, quick, and overwhelming, practiced by the Germans

The Holocaust

the systematic/methodical murder of 11 million people across Europe, more than half of whom were Jews

Anti-semitism

hatred of Jews

Nuremberg Laws

stripped German Jews of citizenship, jobs, and property

Kristallnacht

"Night of Broken Glass," Nazi storm troopers attacked Jewish homes, businesses, and temples

Final Solution

policy of genocide

Genocide

Deliberate and systematic killing of an entire population

Ghettos

dismal, crowded, segregated areas in certain polish cities which were lined with barbed wire and stone walls

concentration camps

labor camps

"Cash and carry" policy

US would allow the sale of arms to cuntries if they 1) paid cash, 2) transported the arms on their own ships

Axis Powers

Germany, Italy, Japan

Selective Service and Training Act

1st peacetime draft, 1940

Lend Lease Act, 1941

lend or lease arms/war supplies to countries that were vital the defense of the Us

Atlantic Charter

US-Brtain delcaration of joint war aims

Hideki Tojo

head of Japanese military

December 7, 1941

Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor

Women's Auxiliary Army Corps

WAAC, volunteer positions for women with military benefits and status

A. Philip Randolph

labor leader and African American activist, organized but cancelled a march on Washington DC to protest segregation and discrimination

Manhattan Project

secret project to create an atomic bomb

Office of Price Adminstration

OPA, gov't administration that fought inflation by freezing prices on most goods, raised income tax, encouraged sale of war bonds

War Productions Board (WPB)

ensured constant production of resources for armed forces, set which companies would convert from peacetime to wartime production, allocated raw materials, organized nationwide drives to collect scrap metal

Rationing

established fixed allotments of goosd deemed essential for the military

Battle of the Atlantic

1942-1943, German u-boats lined US east coast, Allies suffer many ship losses however US begins effective production of ships and destroy u-boats to regain the Atlantic

Battle of Stalingrad

Winter 1942, German attack on Soviet city, Germans gained 9/10 of city, Soviet tanks surrounded city and force German surrender, TURNING POINT in WWII in favor of the Soviet Union

Luftwaffe

German air force

Operation Torch

Allied invasion of Axis controlled north Africa

Dwight D. Eisenhower

US General who led Operation Torch

Italian Campaign

Allied forces campaign in Italy, Italian king forces Mussolini's retirement

Tuskegee Airmen

99th Puruit Squadron, all black unit

100th Battalion

Nisei (2nd generation Japanese American) unit, most decorated unit in history

June 6, 1944

D-Day, Massive Allied land, sea, and air attack on German occupied France. Landed on the shores of Normandy in France.

Battle of the Bulge

Oct 1944, Hitler's last effort to stand ground. Germany army tries to break through Allied lines to Belgium, however failed, only creating a bulge in the line.

Harry Truman

33rd POTUS, in office after FDR's death, ordered atomic bombs on Japan

Victory in Europe Day

May 8, 1945, "V-E" Day, Third Reich officially surrendered

General Douglas MacArthur

Commanded the Allied forces in the Philippines

Doolittle's Raid

April 18, 1942, Allied air raid on Tokyo and other Japanese cities

Admiral Chester Nimitz

Admiral who defended the island of Midway

Battle of Midway

Turning point in WWII in the Pacific in favor of the Allies, 1942

Guadalcanal

"Island of Death," in the Solomon Islands, taken by the Allies, 1942

kamikaze

Japanese suicide pilots

Okinawa

"Typhoon of Steel," island won by the Allies in 1945, 340 miles from Japan

J. Robert Oppenheimer

lead scientist on the Manhattan Project

Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Japanese cities upon which the US dropped 2 atomic bombs

Yalta Conference

FDR, Churchill, Stalin met to discuss Germany's fate
1) Germany divided into 4 sections (US, Britain, France, USSR)
2) Free and unfettered elections in Poland and other Soviet occupied eastern European countries
3) Stalin joined war in Pacific and agreed to participate in an international peace conference

Nuremberg War Trials

Trials prosecuting Nazi leaders for various WWII crimes

crimes against humanity

murder, extermination, deportation, or enslavement of citizens

crimes against peace

planning/waging an aggressive war

war crimes

acts against the customs of warfare, such as the killing of hostages and prisoners, the plundering of private property, and the destruction of towns and cities.

MacArthur Constitution

Japanese constitution that includes suffrage for women and guaranteed individual/personal rights

GI Bill of Rights. 1944

provided opportunities and federal home/farm loans to veterans

Congress of Racial Equality

(CORE), founded by James Farmer, protested African American segregation

Detroit Race Riot of 1943

3 day race riot in Chicago, FDR sent federal troops to calm riots

Zoot Suit Riot

LA race riot between whites (especially sailors) and Mexican Americans and other minorities, lasted almost a week

Internment

confinement

Korematsu v. US

1944, Supreme Court ruled that the internment of Japanese Americans was a "military necessity"

Japanese American Citizens League

JACL, pushed for reparations to interned Japanese Americans

Iwo Jima

Won by the Allies, location where the iconic photograph of soldiers raising the American flag was taken

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