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Which of the following was true only of the Western European empires among all the early modern empires?

a. They were initiated by maritime expansion.
b. They included possessions in Africa.
c. They were created by merchants rather than governments.
d. They spread diseases to which conquered peoples had little immunity.

They were initiated by maritime expansion..

The racial system of which of the following regions was characterized by less racial mixing and less willingness to recognize the offspring of interracial unions than occurred in the other regions?

a. British North America
b. The Caribbean
c. Brazil
d. Mexico

British North America.

Which of the following is a reason why Portugal, Spain, France, and Britain were the first to expand into the New World?

a. These lands lacked iron which drove them to search for deposits.
b. These lands had a long tradition of distant exploration.
c. These lands believed in ancient legends of a lost world across the ocean.
d. These lands were on the Atlantic coast.

These lands were on the Atlantic coast..

Why did some Native Americans aid the Spanish in their initial invasion of the New World?

a. Payment in gold and jewels
b. No Native Americans helped the Spanish.
c. A desire to learn about European culture
d. To gain an advantage against their own enemies

To gain an advantage against their own enemies.

The Spanish Empire in former Aztec and Inca lands

a. possessed strict social boundaries between races which made mixed race people rare.
b. possessed an economy based on commercial agriculture and mining.
c. relied primarily on the import of African slaves for labor.
d. ultimately did not convert to Catholicism despite the efforts of Spanish missionaries.

possessed an economy based on commercial agriculture and mining..

What happened to Native Americans' religious beliefs in Mesoamerica and Peru when confronted with Catholicism?

a. They blended their old customs easily into Catholic practices.
b. They only pretended to be Catholic when Europeans were around.
c. They completely abandoned their old religions, and embraced Catholicism entirely.
d. They rejected Catholicism completely.

They blended their old customs easily into Catholic practices..

Europeans were motivated to venture across the Atlantic Ocean for all the following reasons except

a. their marginal position in the world of Eurasian commerce.
b. rivalries between competing European states.
c. a series of joint international ventures between Western European powers to explore new lands.
d. the goal of missionaries to expand the realm of Christendom.

a series of joint international ventures between Western European powers to explore new lands..

Which of the following statements about the systems of slavery in Brazil and British North America is true?

a. More slaves were voluntarily set free by their owners in Brazil than in North America.
b. The importation of slaves ended earlier in Brazil than in North America.
c. In Brazil, far fewer racial categories were used to describe slaves and former slaves than in British North America.
d. Slaves in Brazil had longer working lives on average and became self-reproducing after 1750.

More slaves were voluntarily set free by their owners in Brazil than in North America..

The British colonies and the Portuguese/Spanish colonies in the Americas differed in that

a. more mixed-race families emerged in the British colonies.
b. the British colonists sought to escape European traditions, while Spanish/Portuguese colonists sought to re-create them in the Americas.
c. the British colonists avoided all military confrontation with Native American societies, while the Spanish/Portuguese actively sought to conquer Native American societies.
d. the British colonization began a full 100 years before the Spanish/Portuguese colonization.

the British colonists sought to escape European traditions, while Spanish/Portuguese colonists sought to re-create them in the Americas..

What is one major reason for the higher literacy rates in British colonies than in Spanish/Portuguese colonies?

a. Protestantism, which encouraged the reading of the Bible, was the dominant form of Christianity in the British colonies.
b. The Spanish/Portuguese governments discouraged literacy amongst colonists to reduce the chance of rebellions.
c. The British government invested massive funds into building libraries throughout North America.
d. Spanish/Portuguese colonizers did not attempt to teach Native Americans to speak or read Spanish/Portuguese.

Protestantism, which encouraged the reading of the Bible, was the dominant form of Christianity in the British colonies..

Which of the following was a feature of China's rule over its newly acquired Central Asian territories that made the region more a part of an empire rather than an integral part of the Chinese state?

a. A massive inflow of Chinese settlers
b. The creation of a new office called the Court of Colonial Affairs
c. The banning of the Buddhist faith in newly conquered lands
d. A concerted effort to assimilate the local populations into Chinese society

The creation of a new office called the Court of Colonial Affairs.

The expansion of the Chinese and Russian Empires into the steppe lands of central Asia led to what result for the nomadic peoples native to this vast area?

a. The political independence and economic prosperity of nomadic peoples came to an end.
b. They felt little impact; as long as they paid tribute, the nomadic peoples were mostly left alone.
c. The threat inspired them to organize into a military confederation that ultimately defeated both empires.
d. A brief economic boom ensued, which encouraged many nomads to move to cities and buy houses.

The political independence and economic prosperity of nomadic peoples came to an end..

Akbar's policy toward the Hindus of India is best described as

a. religious tolerance and incorporation of Hindu elites.
b. massive efforts to convert Hindus to Islam.
c. alliance with the Hindus in order to exterminate the Buddhists.
d. holy war against Hindus.

religious tolerance and incorporation of Hindu elites..

What was the religious outcome of Ottoman rule in Christian Southeastern (Balkan) Europe?

a. The elimination of Christianity and massive conversion to Islam
b. No impact at all as tolerant Ottoman policies encouraged Christianity
c. Persistent religious warfare between Muslims and Christians
d. Conversion to Islam of about 20 percent of the population

Conversion to Islam of about 20 percent of the population.

Which of the following was an outcome of the establishment of European empires in the Americas?

a. The spread of smallpox from the Americas to Eurasia
b. Growing prosperity for Native American societies
c. The establishment for the first time in history of a slave trade in Africa
d. The establishment for the first time of an interacting Atlantic world connecting four continents

The establishment for the first time of an interacting Atlantic world connecting four continents.

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