5th Science Ch 6 Cycles of Life, Biomes, ecosystem change

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evaporation

the process in which a liquid changes into a gas

water vapor

water in its gas state

condensation

the process in which a gas changes into a liquid

precipitation

any form of water that falls to the Earth

water cycle

the continuous movement of water between Earth's surface and the air. Ex: precipitation, runoff, condensation, evaporation

nitrogen cycle

the transfer of nitrogen between the atmosphere and soil, plants, and animals. Ex: ammonia, bacteria, proteins, fertilizers, fossil fuels

runoff

water from rainfall that is not absorbed into the soil and instead flows into streams or lakes

groundwater

water that fills the cracks and spaces in underground soil and rock layers

Biome

one of the Earth's large ecosystems, each with it's own kind of climate, soil, plants, and animals

Desert

A sandy or rocky biome, with little precipitation and plant life. This biome covers most of the western part of the United States.

Tundra

a large, treeless plain in the artic regions where the ground is frozen all year

Taiga

a cool forest biome of conifers in the upper Northern Hemisphere

Tropical Rainforest

a hot, humid biome near the equator, with much rainfall and a large variety of life. This biome supports the most animal life.

Temperate Rain Forest

a biome with lots of rain and a cool climate (mild climate and a great deal of rain)

grassland

a biome where grasses, not trees are the main plant life

plankton

organisms that float freely on the water in aquatic ecosystems and are unable to swim

nekton

organisms that swim through the water in aquatic ecosystems (can be large active swimmers, such as fish and whales, in water ecosystems)

benthos

organisms that live at the bottom of an aquatic ecosystem

intertidal zone

the shallowest part of the ocean ecosystem, where the ocean floor is covered and uncovered as the tide goes in and out

estuary

the boundary where a fresh water ecosystem meets a saltwater ecosystem.

water cycle

the continuous movement of water between Earth's surface and the air, changing from liquid to gas to liquid

evaporation

the change of a liquid into a gas below the boiling point

condensation

the changing of a gas into a liquid

precipitation

any form of water that falls from the atmosphere to the ground

watershed

the area from which water is drained; a river that contributes water to a river or river system

runoff

precipitation that flows across the lands surface or falls into rivers or streams

groundwater

precipitation that seeps into the ground and is stored in tiny holes, or pores, in soil and rocks

carbon cycle

the continuous exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen amoung living things

nitrogen cycle

the continuous trapping of nitrogen gas into compounds in the soil and its return to the air

compost

the mixture of dead plant material that can be used as fertilizer

extinct species

a species that has died out completely

endangered species

a species that is in danger of becoming extinct

threatened species

a species that is in danger of becoming endangered

succession

the process of one ecosystem changing into a new and different ecosystem

primary succession

the beginning of a community where few, if any, living things exist

secondary succession

the beginning of a new community where an earlier community already existed

pioneer species

the first species living in an otherwise lifeless area

pioneer community

the first community living in a lifeless area

climax community

the final stage of succession in an area, unless a major change happens

An example of a benthos

a barnacle

Why would more organisms live in shallow water because...

there is more oxygen, and also more sunlight

which type of ecosystem has both fresh and salt water?

estuary

what's an example of a pioneer community?

moss

Nertic Zone

the ocean zone where coral reefs and kelp forests are located

which type of biome has the greatest diversity of plants and animals?

tropical rain forest

Where does the energy that is needed for the water cycle to take place come from?

the Sun

Why can't trees grow in the tundra?

the cold temperature and frozen ground prevent the growth of trees in the tundra

What does the nitrogen-fixing bacteria in soil turn nitrogen gas into?

ammonia

What is the main difference between primary and secondary succession?

primary succession begins with bare rock

what is it called when a liquid changes into a gas?

evaporation

Compared with a temperate forest a grassland has...

a lot less rainfall

why are most animals endangered?

because of habitat loss

taiga

a cold and snowy biome with lots of conifers

deciduous forest

a biome with a temperate climate and trees with broad leaves

tropical rainforest

a biome that is hot and humid and the seasons change very little and there are many different kinds of plants and animals

tundra

a biome where it is cold and there is little precipitation. A layer of permafrost is on the top layer of the ground in this biome.

grassland

a biome with lots of grasses and the animals hide in the grasses. Uneven precipitation and warm summers are characteristic of this biome

Where is the tundra located?

at the top of the world around the North Pole

Large amounts of plant life provide habitats for many species of animals in the _____________________________biome

tropical forest

What are the 4 layers in the tropical forests?

emergent layer, canopy, under story, and forest floor

Nocturnal animals

sleep in the day and hunts at night

Where do animals get water if they never drink the water?

seed and plants

What are the challenges facing animals in the desert?

there is not much water and the weather is hot and dry

Why does the rain that falls in the desert evaporate quickly?

The heat of the hot hot sun turns it into a gas

What are the cool deserts like?

They are hot during the summer, cold during the winter, and sometimes known to get snow.

Biome with extreme heat, dryness & cold nights

Desert

What must animals in the desert survive?

They must survive extreme heat, searing sun, and a lack of water.

What are the main kinds of plants in the grassland?

grasses

What are some animals that live in the grassland biome?

insects, zebras, elephants, and giraffes

Air Pressure is high when the weather is __________.

cold and dry

Drizzle differs from rain in that the droplets are _____________.

smaller than 0.02 inches

What are some plants that live in the Propical Rain Forest?

driptips, mangroves, bamboo, banana

What are some animals that live in the Tropical Rain Forest?

chimpanzee, common tree shrew, gorilla

Where is the Tropical Rain Forest located?

a little in the USA, in Africa, and South America

What is the climate like in the Tropical Rain Forest?

the average temperature is 70-85 degrees F. The precipatation is 80-400 inches per year.

About how much of the Earth's animals and plants live in the Tropical Rain Forest?

1/2 of the Earth's plants and animals

What is the climate like in the Tundra?

It receives an average of 10 inches precipitation per year. The average annual temperature is 10-20 degress F.

Desert Biome

less than 10 inches of precipitation per year; may be hot or cold; has a rocky or sandy soil; plants adapt by storing water; many animals are nocturnal, so they are not moving around during the hot days, and the animals that live there don't need much water to stay alive

What kind of trees are in the deciduous forest?

Broad leaf trees like oaks & maples

deciduous

trees and shrubs that shed their leaves at the end of the growing season in the fall

temperate

free from extremes of weather or climate

What happened to the bison in the grassland?

They were hunted and killed almost to extinction for their heavy thick fur.

What does the deciduous forest look like in the winter?

It is usually covered with a blanket of snow and all of the deiciduous trees have lost their leaves.

What causes the seasons to change in a biome?

The tilt of the Earth on its axis causes the Earth to either be closer or further from the sun. The closer a hemisphere is to the sun the warmer the season is. The further the hemisphere is from the sun, the cooler or colder that hemisphere is.

What 2 biomes blend at camp Goddard?

the deciduous forest and the grassland

What does the weather of a biome mean?

it is the day to day temperature and precipitation

What does the climate of a ciome mean?

It is the average temperature and precipitation of an area for a year.

How many seasons does the deciduous forest have?

it has 4 seasons: winter, spring, summer & fall or autumn

what is the most common tree in a taiga?

a conifer (a tree that has pine cones)

Rainforest

this is a warm, wet biome where plants keep their leaves all year. The most different types of plants and animals live in this biome.

What are the layers of the rainforest biome?

There are 4 layers: emergent layer, canopy, understory and forest floor

temperate rainforest

wet coastal forests that are very moist and shrouded in fog

tropical rainforest

forests which receive over 80 inches of rainfall a year and are very warm and trees do not lose their leaves during the year.

when in the tundra is water available?

only for a little while in the summer when it has rained and the water cannot soak into the ground because it is frozen

What is happening to the rainforests?

they are disappearing because the trees are being cut down.

permafrost

layer of permanently frozen ground just below the topsoil

The process of naturally recycling water on Earth I called the

Water cycle

When cooled enough water vapor

Condenses into tiny water droplets

Heat energy makes water

Evaporate

Plants give some of their water back to the atmosphere through their

Leaves

Droplets that become large and heavy that they no longer stay up in the air fall to earths surface as

Evaporation

Water flowing downhill across the surface of earth is called

Runoff

Water stored in soil and rock is

Groundwater

The contains more then

97% of worlds water

Dead trees provide

Elements

Organisms that recycle matte in dead organisms are

Decomposer

Decomposers break down wood into

Carbon dioxide and ammonia

Nitrogen is found in

Fertilizers substances that add minerals to the soil

The gas added to air is by a lot of living things are called

Carbon dioxide

Plants use carbon to make sugers,starches,protein during

Photosynis

Animal use carbon to make sugers,starches,protein to make their own

Body chemicals

Animals get nitrogen by eating

Protein

Plants ger nitrogen by absorbing it from the

Soil

Plants use nitrogen to make

Protein

Decomposers break down the proteins of dead plants into the nitrogen containing substance

Ammonia

Soil bacteria change ammonia into

Nitrites

Amimals wastes contain

Nitrogen componds

Nitrates are turned back into nitrogen gas by

Bacteria

Sunlight is a

Inexhaustible resource

The buliding blocks of products are

Raw minerals

A resource that can be replaced like a tree is

Renewable resources

We can convert raw minerals by

Recycling them

Recycled materials are sent to

Recycling centers

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