Science 2nd 9 Weeks Review

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forecast

Predicting Weather
a prediction of what the weather will be like in the future

weather map

Predicting Weather
a map that shows data about recent weather conditions across a large area

station model

Predicting Weather
an arrangement of symbols and numbers that show the weather conditions recorded at a weather station

dew point

Predicting Weather
the temperature in which water vapor in the air will condense

surface map

Predicting Weather
a map that includes station models and information about fronts and about centers of hight pressure and low pressure

thermometer

Predicting Weather
measures temperature
simple instrument

barometer

Predicting Weather
measures air pressure
simple instrument

anemometer

Predicting Weather
measures wind speed
simple instrument

rain gauge

Predicting Weather
measures precipitation
simple instrument

wind vane

Predicting Weather
measures wind direction
simple instrument

doppler radar

Predicting Weather
measures wind speed and precipitation
complex instrument

weather balloon

Predicting Weather
measures temperature, humidity, and air pressure
complex instrument

weather satellite

Predicting Weather
measures temperature, humidity, and fog
complex instrument

100,000

Predicting Weather
weather balloons can go as high as ________ feet

weather map

Predicting Weather
the best way to communicate atmospheric information is with a ______________

National Weather Service

Predicting Weather
main source of weather maps in the U.S.

3-6

Predicting Weather
surface maps show recent weather conditions across the U.S. and are updated every _____ hours

weather satellites
doppler radar

Predicting Weather
2 new developments that have dramatically improved weather forecasting are _______________ and ____________

1960s

Predicting Weather
weather satellites have been orbiting Earth since the _____

short - term forecast

Predicting Weather
more accurate today that in the past because of more advanced technology
2-3 days
more accurate than long - term forecasts because of the shorter time period between the forecast and the weather and because weather changes quickly

long - term forecast

Predicting Weather
4-7 days
less accurate than short - term forecasts

warm ocean water

Severe Storms
what is the basis to begin the formation of a hurricane

cumulus

Severe Storms
the spiral of a hurricane is made up of ________ clouds

base
sides

Severe Storms
warm, wet air is pulled into the _____ and _____ of the hurricane

eye

Severe Storms
cool, dry air is pulled into the _____ of the hurricane

eye wall

Severe Storms
the hurricane's fastest winds are found where

counter - clockwise

Severe Storms
hurricanes that form above the equator spin _________________

clockwise

Severe Storms
hurricanes that form below the equator spin ____________

right

Severe Storms
which side of a hurricane that spins counter - clockwise gives the worst storm surge

winds

Severe Storms
what causes hurricanes to travel

rapidly rising warm air
water vapor

Severe Storms
what is the fuel supply for thunderstorms

warm

Severe Storms
are updrafts made up of cool or warm air

cool

Severe Storms
are downdrafts made up of cool or warm air

thunder

Severe Storms
shock wave from rapid heating of air by a lightning bolt

lightning

Severe Storms
charge of electricity between 2 points

2000

Severe Storms
about ______ thunderstorms are taking place at any given moment

50,000

Severe Storms
a lightning bolt heats the air around it to _________ degrees Fahrenheit

hour

Severe Storms
how long do most thunderstorms last

372

Severe Storms
hurricanes can be as much as ____ miles across and can travel for thousands of miles and last for more than a week

186

Severe Storms
hurricane winds can reach ____ miles per hour

low

Severe Storms
a hurricane starts as a ____ pressure area over an ocean

warm air/water

Severe Storms
what keeps a hurricane going

land
less humid air
dry air
cool temperatures

Severe Storms
what 4 conditions would cause a hurricane to die out

lowering a weighted rope from the ship and when it hung loosely, they knew it had touched the bottom

Earth's Oceans
while sailing on the HMS Challenger in 1872, how did scientists map the depth of the ocean floor

Atlantic
Pacific
Indian

Earth's Oceans
list all of the oceans where the mid-ocean ridge is found

deep ocean trench

Earth's Oceans
place where 2 plates of the Earth's crust hit each other, forming a deep part of the ocean

abyssal plain

Earth's Oceans
vast floor of the deep oceans

rift

Earth's Oceans
deep ocean valley formed where 2 crustal plates move apart

seamount

Earth's Oceans
steep - sided volcanic mountain under the ocean

hot spot

Earth's Oceans
single column of magma found in the middle of Earth's plates that breaks through Earth's crust to the surface

atoll

Earth's Oceans
ring of islands around a shallow central lagoon

coral reef

Earth's Oceans
large masses of limestone rocks created by animal shells

continental shelf

Earth's Oceans
gently sloping part of a continent that's under water and rings each continent

continental slope

Earth's Oceans
edge of a continent that drops steeply down to the deep - ocean floor

Pacific

Earth's Oceans
seamounts that have become islands are formed mainly in the _______ ocean

mid - ocean ridge

Earth's Oceans
the world's longest mountain range is the _____________

Surtsey

Earth's Oceans
in 1963 a brand new island named _______ appeared in the Atlantic Ocean

Hawaiian

Earth's Oceans
undersea volcanoes formed the ________ islands

active
inactive

Earth's Oceans
the most recent volcanoes on Hawaii are __________
the older volcanoes are __________

South Pacific

Earth's Oceans
in which ocean are atolls most common

sunlight
warm water

Earth's Oceans
what are the 2 things coral reefs need to survive and grow

3
fringing
barrier
atoll

Earth's Oceans
how many types of coral reefs are there
what are their names

mid - ocean ridge

Earth's Oceans
at what part of the ocean is new ocean floor forming

covered with a thick layer of sediment

Earth's Oceans
why is the abyssal plain so flat

coral reefs

Earth's Oceans
an atoll is a ring of islands that form because of the growth of ____________

Challenger Deep

Earth's Oceans
what is the name of the deepest part of the ocean

7 miles below sea level

Earth's Oceans
what is the depth of the deepest part of the ocean

Mariana Trench

Earth's Oceans
the deepest part of the ocean is part of which trench

plate tectonics

Earth's Crust
the process of molten rock in the mantle sinking, warming, rising, and cooling
this is actually what makes the plates move

convergent boundary

Earth's Crust
boundary where crustal plates collide with each other

divergent boundary

Earth's Crust
boundary where crustal plates move away from each other

transform fault boundary

Earth's Crust
boundary where crustal plates grind past each other

mid - ocean ridge

Earth's Crust
place where plates of the Earth's crust along the ocean floor are being split apart and molten rock pushes up to form new ocean floor and a mountain range

magnitude

Earth's Crust
the amount of energy released in an earthquake

intensity

Earth's Crust
the amount of damage done in an earthquake

oceanic crust

Earth's Crust
which of the two crust types is newer and thinner

erosion
deposition
meteorites
glaciers
wind
water
natural disasters
etc.

Earth's Crust
list all of the constant processes that change Earth's surface

19,000

Earth's Crust
each year about _______ meteorites fall to Earth

divergent

Earth's Crust
new crust is created at a __________ boundary

convergent

Earth's Crust
old crust is reabsorbed at a __________ boundary

80
90

Earth's Crust
there is a lot of activity along a convergent boundary
___% of all volcanoes and ___% of all earthquakes occur along this boundary type

Pangea

Earth's Crust
the continents were once joined together to form one big supercontinent named _________

Alfred Wegener

Earth's Crust
who came up with the hypothesis of all the continents being joined into one supercontinent called Pangea

crust
volcanoes
earthquakes

Earth's Crust
scientists use clues from ______, __________, and _______________ to hypothesize about how Earth's surface has changed over the past 500 million years

4000

Earth's Crust
from Earth to the center of Earth is about _____ miles

mantle

Earth's Crust
which layer of Earth is the thickest

crust

Earth's Crust
which layer contains granite and basalt

P wave

Earth's Crust
which wave is fastest

surface wave

Earth's Crust
which wave causes the most damage

Ring of Fire

Earth's Crust
the Andes is part of a long chain of volcanoes ringing the Pacific Ocean called the _____________

10,000

Earth's Crust
the temperature of the inner core is ________ degrees Fahrenheit

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