Genetic Engineering

21 terms by jacki-chan105

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This is for the terminology quiz on Feb. 1.

Selective Breeding

Method of improving species by allowing only those individual organisms with desired characteristics to produce the next generation

Hybridization

Breeding technique that involves crossing dissimilar individuals to bring together the best traits of both organisms

Inbreeding

Continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics

Polyploidy

Condition in which an organism has extra sets of chromosomes

Genetic Engineering

Process of making changes in the DNA code of living organisms

Restriction Enzymes

Enzymes that cut DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides

Gel Electrophoresis

Procedure used to detect and analyze DNA fragments by placing a mixture of DNA fragments at one end of a porpous gel and applying an electrical voltage to the gel

Recombinant DNA

DNA produced by combining DNA from different sources

PCR

Technique that allows molecular biologists to make many copies of a particular gene

Stem Cells

unspecialized cells that retain the ability to become a wide variety of specialized cells

Biotechnology

The engineering of organisms for useful purposes

Bacteria

Domain of unicellular prokaryotes that have cell walls containing peptidoglycans

Clone

Members of a population of genetically altered organisms produced from a single cell

Transformation

Process in which one strain of bacteria is changed by a gene or genes from another strain of bacteria

Plasmid

Circular DNA molecule found in bacteria

Genetic Marker

A gene that makes it possible to distinguish bacteria that carry the plasmid (and the foreign DNA) from those that don't

Embryo

Organism in its early stage of development

Transgenic

Term used to refer to an organism that contains genes from other organisms

Genetic Variability

a measure of the tendency of individual genotypes in a population to vary from one another

DNA Fingerprinting

Analysis of sections of DNA that have little or no known function, but vary widely from one individual to another, in order to identify individuals

Bioethics

the branch of ethics that studies moral values in the biomedical sciences

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