English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings (1588-1679)
Written by English philosopher Thomas Hobbes, maintained that sovereignty is ultimately derived from the people, who transfer it to the monarchy by implicit contract.
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
What influences Thomas Hobbes thinking?
The new scientific thought that saw mathematical knowledge as the avenue to truth influcenced Hobbes' thinking.
Was Hobbes an optimist or a pessimist?
Hobbes was a pessimist
According to Hobbes, why do men become enemies?
They both desire the same thing which cannot be shared.
According to Hobbes, what are the causes of quarrels?
competition, diffidence, glory
According to Hobbes, what are the passions that incline men to peace?
fear of death, desire of luxuries, hope to obtain luxuries
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
Letter Concerning Toleration
Written by John Locke; declared that Christians who persecute others in the name of religion are morally corrupt
Two Treatises on Government
book publish by John Locke, set forth idea that people have certain rights and the gov. is formed to protect those rights, life liberty property, he believed ppl were justified in rebelling if this was violated
Which American documents did Locke's thinking influence?
American Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, the Bill of Rights
According to Locke, what is political power?
The power which every man has given up into the hands of society, which shall be employed for their good.
Who stated that the people have the right to dissolve a government if it does not preserve individual rights?
Who stated that people need to be ruled by one man or one assembly and give up their will to that one?
Who proposed one set of laws for all the people, without special privilege for the wealthy?
Who proposed that the government can raise taxes as needed without the consent of the people?
What cultural change did the 16 Century Religious Revolution bring about?
Change in the forms of worship, conception of destiny, and diversity of opinion and faith
How did the 16th Century Religious Revolution forever change the West?
It disrupted the unity of the Christian Church
What was the goal of the17th Century Monarchical Revolution?
Stability and peace
a male sovereign
a nation's ruler or head of state usually by hereditary right
a form of government headed by a ruler, or monarch, with unlimited power
age of absolutism
1650-1789, a purposeful attempt by European rulers to attend their royal or dynastic control over all aspects of life in the lands they ruled
Who belonged to the first estate?
The Church and it clergy
Who belonged to the second estate?
Who belonged to the third estate?
Everyone who was not a member of the first or second estates
Which estate operated the schools?
Which estate collected customary dues?
To which estate did the bourgeoisie belong?
The Political and Social system that existed in France before the French Revolution
What were the ideals of the French Revolution?
liberty, equality, and brotherhood
Upon which philosophy was the French Revolution based?
Why was France bankrupt by 1789?
Debt accumulated because of the American Revolution and the wars of the late 17th and early 18th centuries; neither the first nor second estates paid taxes
How did Louis XV and XVI attempt to repair France's finances?
raise taxes from the nobility
What steps did Rene Maupeou take to help the French economy?
Abolished the parlements, began reforms, increased efficiency in government
Why did Maupeou's efforts fail to repair the French economy?
Louis XV died and Louis XVI revived all the old ways
How did Jacque Necker attempt to repair the French economy?
Said if the cost of American Revolution was removed, the budget was in surplus
How did Charles Alexandre de Calonne attempt to revitalize the French economy?
Proposed internal trade, lowering of some taxes, transform servants' services to money payments, new land tax to be paid by all landowners
Why did de Calonne fail to revive the French economy?
The Assembly of Notables called for Louis XVI to reappoint Necker
How did the summoning of the Estates General move France closer to revolution?
Bourgeoisie and aristocrats opposed absolutism and worked to develop a new government
Convention created by Third Estate when the Estates General refused to give them more power, even though they represented 97% of the nation's population
Who broke away from the Estates General and also joined the National Assembly?
Liberal-minded clergy and nobility
What did the National Assembly want to create?
A parliamentary system similar that of the British
Tennis Court Oath
National Assembly members who vowed to stay in session until a parliamentary government was formed.
What happened in Paris on July 12, 1789
Crowds marched, threw stones at the cavalry, and set up barricades.
Why was the Bastille attacked?
The Parisian crowds were looking for more guns and gun powder.
As violence spread throughout France, what actions did the National Assembly take?
Abolished feudal privileges, removed nobles as law makers, abolished courts run by the nobility, required the nobility to pay taxes, and ended the requirement to pay tithes to the Church.
Declaration of the Rights of Man
Issued August 27, 1789 by the National Assembly stating that it was man's natural right to liberty, and to resist oppression.
According to the Declaration of the Rights of Man, what was the requirement to hold public office?
Virtue and talent
What was the verdict in the trial of Louis XVI?
Guilty of conspiring against the liberty of the people and security of the state.
What happened to Louis XVI after his trial?
Beheaded January 21, 1793
Which group tried to spare Louis XVI's life?
Which two committees did the Convention establish to run France?
Committee of Public Safety and Committee of General Security
Which group supported the Committee of Public Safety?
Which group removed the Girondist members from the Convention
levee en masse
a military requisition on the entire population, conscripting males into the army and directing econonic production to military purposes
How was the French army of 1793 different from previous European armies?
It was a citizen army
Reign of Terror
This was the period in France where Robespierre ruled and used revolutionary terror to solidify the home front. He tried rebels and they were all judged severely and most were executed
Republic of Virtue
Ideal of French Revolution where all traces of the old order were wiped out
Pauline Leon & Claire Lacombe
founders of the Society of Revolutionary Republican Women
What did the Society of Revolutionary Republican Women want?
To fight the internal enemies of the French Revolution; stricter controls on the price of food
How did the Jacobins in the Convention react to the radical women's movement?
Banned all women's clubs and societies
Olympe de Gouges
Author of the Declaration of the Rights of Women; opposed the Reign of Terror; guillotined November 1793
A French political leader of the eighteenth century. A Jacobin, he was one of the most radical leaders of the French Revolution. He was in charge of the government during the Reign of Terror, when thousands of persons were executed without trial. After a public reaction against his extreme policies, he was executed without trial.
who were the victims of the Reign of Terror?
"enemies" of the Republic: aristocrats, royal family, good republicans who opposed the policies of Robespierre
Law of 22 Prairial
permitted the revolutionary tribunal to convict suspects without hearing substantial evidence
extended Political Reign of Terror. Goal was increasingly an ideal democratic republic where justice would reign and there would be neither rich nor poor. their lofty goal was unrestrained despotism and guillotine. In Mar. 1794, to the horror of many sans-culorres, Robespierre's Terror wiped out many angry men who had been criticizing Robespierre for being soft on the wealthy. it recalled the early days of the Revolution
When & why did the Reign of Terror end?
July 1794; many Frenchmen thought the san-culottes were exerting too much political influence
Changes at the end of the Reign of Terror
Middle class replaced the sans-culottes; general amnesty for political prisoners; less power for Committee of Public Safety; repealed Law of 22 Prairial; Paris Commune outlawed; Paris Jacobin Club closed; white terror- execution of people involved in the Reign of Terror; allowed Catholic worship; established separate spheres for men and women; Constitution of the Year III
Constitution of the Year III
a document that reflected the Themoridian determination to reject contitutional monarchy and democracy; provided for the Council of Elders and the Council of Five Hundred
Overthrew French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of the French in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile.
What type of government did Napoleon create?
strong centralized government with trained civil service
Why did Napoleon allow religious freedom?
He believed it kept the people "meek and mild"; the church was under state control
What is the Code Napoleon?
A code of law that provided equality before the law, careers open to talent, freedom, protection of private property, abolition of serfdom, and the secularization of the state
Why did Napoleon favor public education?
It provided capable civil servant, trained military officers, and obedient citizens
How did Napoleon stimulate the French economy?
Aided industry through tariffs, build & repaired bridges and roads, established the Bank of France, kept the price of bread affordable
Why did the Napoleonic Wars end?
The Russian army defeated the French Army.
Why was Napoleon a successful general?
He was an excellent strategist; he led his army into battle.