Final Multiple Choice

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The vast majority of psychologists study

everday behavior and feelings

The pursuit of knowledge for its own sake is called

basic science

A complex explanation based on findings from many studies is a(n)

theory

The concept of "unconscious determinant of behavior" is associated with

Sigmund Freud

A hypothesis is

An educated guess, scientifically tested, and part of the Scientific Method

The first modern psychologist was

Wilhelm Wundt

Which of the following is associated with Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers?

humanistic psychology

Psychologists who use psychological principles to solve immediate problems are practicing

applied science

Participants in an experiment who are exposed to the independent variable are called the ___ group

experimental

The most commonly used measure of central tendency is the

mean

When neither the participants nor the experimenter knows which group of participants is the experimental one, the study is known as a

double-blind study

What is the mode of the following distribution:

mode is the most often occurring number in a set of numbers

In ___ studies, psychologists study the same group of participants at regular intervals over a period of years

longitudinal

The variable that experimenters manipulate is called the ___ variable

independent

A measure of the degree of relatedness between two variables is

correlation

The cardinal rule of naturalistic observation is to

avoid disturbing the participants

When researchers unwittingly bring about the situation they expected to find, they have created a

self-fulfilling prophecy

On a normal curve, the center of the range of scores is represented by the

mean

Psychologists call the internally programmed growth of a child

maturation

Jean Piaget's research shows that

intelligence develops as children grow

An infant who has developed object permanence

knows an object exists even if it can't be seen

A newborn infant has certain automatic movement patterns called

reflexes

Sigmund Freud believed that children were born with ___ urges

sexual and aggressive

Lawrence Kohlberg identified six stages of moral development. In Stage 1 a child

is totally egocentric

Imprinting is

sudden and can take place in less than a day

Which of the following helps an infant find the mother's breast?

rooting reflex

Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development claims that if a young child is praised for her new abilities she will learn

autonomy

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of girls who mature early

They are proud of height and figure at first

The concept of adolescent identity categories is associated with

James Marcia

Simone, a typical adolescent, will most likely turn to her peers for advice on

fashion

The androgynous role is one that

combines both male and female characteristics

Which of the following events does NOT occur at approximately the same time as the other

menopause

The goal of hospice care is to

improve the quality of life

Brianna is at her physical peak. She most likely is ___ years old

18-30

Which of the following is the correct order of the stages of adjusting to dying and death as defined by Elisabeth Kubler-Ross

denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance

Alberto believes that his function in life is to help younger generations by passing on his acquired business wisdom. Erik Erikson would say that Alberto is exhibiting

generativity

According to Erik Erikson, a successful midlife transition for men fosters a sense of

generativity

The autonomic nervous system regulates the action of the

involuntary muscles and organs

The nervous system and the endocrine system

send info to and from the brain

The EEG monitors

electrical activity in the brain

In the nature-nurture question, nature refers to

biological makeup

The brain and spinal cord make up the

central nervous system

In a grand mal seizure

uncontrolled electrical activity in one hemisphere of the brain spreads to the other hemisphere

Regions of the cerebral cortex are referred to as

lobes

Which of the following is NOT a basic part of a neuron

medulla

Which of the following hormones is important to the physical development of men?

testosterone

An injury to the spinal cord

can lead to paralysis

Which of the following is NOT true of identical twins?

they occur more frequently than fraternal twins

The endocrine system sends chemical messages called

hormones

You do not constantly feel your clothing on your body because of

sensory adaption

The absolute threshold is the ___ that a person can detect half of the time

weakest amount of a stimulus

Specialized receptor cells responsible for night vision are called

rods

Smell receptors send messages to the brain via the ___ nerve

olfactory

Light enters the eye through the

pupil

The four primary sensory experiences that make up taste are

sour, salty, bitter, sweet

In classical conditioning, the best results occur when the conditioned stimulus is presented

before the unconditioned response

A subject responding to a second stimulus similar to the original CS is an example of

generalization

An unpleasant consequence that decreases the frequency of the response that produced it is called

punishment

Learning from the consequences of behavior is called

operant conditioning

A child saying "Daddy" only to her father is an example of

discrimination

In classical conditioning, the unconditioned stimulus elicits an

automatic response

In human society, money serves as a

secondary reinforcer

An individual watches a friend send an E-mail message. When the individual is later able to send an E-mail message, the type of learning exhibited is

observational

Chunking is associated with

short-term memory

Photographic memory is also called

eidetic memory

Which of the following describes your ability to identify the name of your first grade teacher in a newspaper article?

recognition

Psychologist George Miller discovered that short-term memory is limited to about

seven items

Which of the following describes your ability to identify the sound of a musical instrument you have heard before?

recognition

The three memory processes are

encoding, storage, and retrieval

HOMES, an acronym for the five Great Lakes (Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, Superior) is an example of a

mnemonic device

The three types of memory are

sensory, short-term, and long-term

A child who speaks in sentences, but does not use articles or prepositions is exhibiting

telegraphic speech

Who first proposed that children are born with an innate capacity for language?

Noam Chomsky

___ is the first stage of language development

cooing/babbling

___ proposed that children learn language as a result of reinforcement

B.F. Skinner

In Harry Harlow's study, the baby monkeys preferred

the cloth mother

The "hierarchy of needs" was developed by

Abraham Maslow

Which of the following is a self-actualization need

fulfilling ones own potential

The sympathetic system

energizes the body for activity

The tendency of organisms to return to or maintain a normal state is called

homeostasis

Abraham Maslow refers to biological drives, including the need for physical safety and security as

fundamental

The Cannon-Bard theory proposed that

the brain arouses the body and triggers emotions simultaneously

The ___ theory is a homeostatic theory of emotional reactions

opponent-process

Incentive theory stresses the role of the ___ in motivating behavior

environment

A test designed to measure management ability is found to be a very good predictor of how well an individual will function as a manager. This test is said to be

valid

A college admissions test designed to find out whether an individual would make a good architecture student based on the skills that person has is an example of an

aptitude test

When an algebra teacher gives a test to her class to measure how much algebra her students have learned, she is giving an

achievement test

A test that is administered twice to the same person with very different results cannot be called

reliable

The Stanford-Binet test measures intelligence in terms of

mental age

A test that is designed to predict how successful and happy a student might be in a particular career is called an

interest inventory

According to Sigmund Freud, the part of the psyche that stops a person from stealing is the

superego

Thinking that someone is angry at you when in reality you are angry at yourself is called

projection

Marty frequently becomes angry at his wife. The real object of his anger is his mother. This defense mechanism is called

displacement

A three-year-old child who has been toilet trained starts wetting the bed after the birth of a sibling. This child is using the defense mechanism of

regression

Mrs. Smith exhibits strong feelings of love toward her child, although unconsciously she is very angry at the child. She is displaying the defense mechanism of

reaction formation

Rewards and punishments are associated with

behavioral psychology

Abraham Maslow deliberately tried to establish an alternative to psychoanalysis and behaviorism called

humanistic psychology

Which of the following does not describe the self-actualizing individual?

self-centered

___ can be described as people who are thoughtful, passive, and quiet

introvert

According to Sigmund Freud, human personality includes all of the following except

collective unconscious

Freud was the first modern psychologist to suggest that

every personality has a large unconscious component

The methods by which the ego unconsciously protects itself against unpleasant circumstances are called

defense mechanisms

According to Carl Rogers, every person has which two parts?

the person and self

B.F. Skinner's approach to personality is based on

behaviorism

Who of the following defined a self-actualized person

Abraham Maslow

Which of the following is a term used by Carl Rogers

all of the above (fully functioning, unconditional positive regard, conditions of worth)

Your level of stress is influenced by your ____, which involves your immediate evaluation of a situation.

Primary appraisal

Tony, a young boy, wants to pet a friend's dog, but he is afraid that the dog will bite him. This is a(n) ___ conflict.

Approach-avoidance

Which of the following does NOT characterize Type A people

toleration for delay

Eustress is a term that means

positive stress

The sequence of the general adaptation syndrome is

alarm, resistance, exhaustion

Stressful situations experienced for a long time may weaken your

immune system

The ___ person is less vulnerable to stress

Type B

Axis II of DSM-IV is used to describe

developmental disorders

The difference between a mild psychological disorder and abnormality is

abnormality is any deviation from the average or from the majority. mild psychological disorders are annoying and hard to function properly in society

___ is a reaction to vague or imagined dangers.

anxiety

General symptoms of ___ include breathing difficulties, faintness or dizziness, nausea, and chest pains

panic disorder

Which of the following is NOT suspected of causing generalized anxiety disorder?

brain tumors

Physical symptoms of ___ include muscular tension, an inability to relax, a furrowed brow, and a strained face

general anxiety disorder

A person who is extremely afraid of darkness suffers from

a specific phobia

A common treatment for phobias is to

systematic desensitization

A person who experiences uncontrollable thought patterns and performs irrational actions suffers from

obsessive-compulsive disorder

A victim of a physical assault who relives the event repeatedly in his or her mind may be suffering from

post-traumatic stress disorder

Psychologists today use the term ___ instead of hysteria

somatoform disorder

Dissociative amnesia most often results from

a traumatic event

A person who suddenly and unexpectedly travels away from home and cannot recall the past is experiencing

dissociative fugue

People with dissociative identity disorder usually

suffered abuse as children

A person who cannot walk because of psychological distress rather than any psychical cause is suffering from

conversion disorder

Dissociative disorders are

when a person experiences alterations in memory, identity, or consciousness

___ schizophrenia involves delusions of grandeur and persecution

paranoid

Schizophrenia affects approximately ___ of the population worldwide

1 percent

Symptoms of ___ drugs range from nausea and "the shakes," to hallucinations, convulsions, coma, and death

withdrawal from

Individuals who have ___ disorder are basically thrill seekers who feel no shame or guilt if they injure other people or break social rules

anti-social

A ___ personality is characterized by a distrust of others and a perception that others have evil motives

paranoid

A person addicted to drugs develops a ___ that requires ever increasing doses to achieve the same "high."

tolerance

Which type of psychotherapy is based on the belief that emotional problems arise when an individual's assumptions are unrealistic?

humanistic

Which of the following is used in the treatment of bipolar disorder?

lithium

A therapist who follows the theories of Sigmund Freud is likely to encourage patients to talk about everything that comes to mind. This method is called

free association

The study of how our thoughts, feelings, perceptions, and behaviors are influenced by our interaction with others is the domain of

social psychology

A social trap occurs when individuals in a group decide

not to cooperate

The tendency to assume that someone else will handle emergencies when more than one person is present is called

bystander effect

Which of the following refers to the tendency to perform better in the presence of a group

social facilitation

The key factor in forming a group is

similar interests

A pacifist who has been drafted is against killing yet believes in obeying the laws. He or she is probably experiencing

cognitive dissonance

The object of brainwashing is to

creating a new person with different attitudes

You believe all conservative people to be cold and aloof. When you meet a conservative you keep your distance, then the person seems to act cold toward you. This is an example of

self-fulfilling prophecy

A psychologist studying such matters as how to select a trial jury or the reliability of eyewitnesses would most likely be a ___ psychologist

cognitive psychologist

Applied psychologists search for ___ to psychological problems

applied research is scientific study that aims to solve practical problems

Which of the following focuses on the role psychological functions play in the physical well-being of an individual?

clinical psychology

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